dissabte, 11 de novembre de 2017

GERMAN, Edward (1862-1936) - Symphony No. 2 ‘Norwich’ (1893)

Félix Ziem - View of Istanbul (1850)
Obra de Fèlix Ziem (1821-1911), pintor francès (1)


- Recordatori d'Edward German -
En el dia de la commemoració del seu 81è aniversari de decés



Parlem de Pintura...

Fèlix Ziem (Beaune, 25 de febrer de 1821 - París, 10 de novembre de 1911) va ser un pintor francès pertanyent a l'Escola de Barbizon. Va ser un artista nòmada, inclassificable i excèntric i un incansable viatger, admirador de Lorrain i de Turner. Es va guanyar un lloc original en l'art del segle XIX francès. Originalment, Ziem va planejar ser arquitecte i va estudiar a l'Escola d'Arquitectura de Dijon, i durant un temps va treballar com a arquitecte. La pintura va passar de una afició a una carrera després d'una visita a Itàlia el 1841, on es va enamorar de la ciutat de Venècia, una ciutat que es convertiria en la font de moltes de les seves obres. A part d'escenes venecianes, va pintar també molts bodegons, retrats i paisatges de llocs variats incloent Constantinoble, Martigues, Cagnes-sur-Mer i la seva Borgonya nativa. Ziem va saber seduir a una àmplia clientela que somiava amb Venècia o Constantinoble al contemplar-les en els seus llenços. La seva va ser una fecunda carrera a l'ombra de Delacroix. Estèticament, l'aigua i el cel ocupen un lloc predominant en els paisatges lluminosos que el van fer famós. Va morir a París el novembre de 1911.



Parlem de Música...

Edward German (Whitchurch, 17 de febrer de 1862 - London, 11 de novembre de 1936) va ser un compositor anglès. Es va formar en música de forma tardana i fins el 1880 no va entrar a la Royal Academy of Music de Londres. Allà es va formar en orgue, violí i finalment en composició amb Ebenezer Prout. El 1885 va ser premiat pel seu Te Deum i un any després va estrenar The Two Poets, la seva primera opereta. També en aquell temps va realitzar un viatge formatiu per Alemanya on va entrar en contacte amb la seva òpera. Al seu retorn a Londres, va ser nomenat, el 1888, director musical del Globe Theatre. Gràcies a la direcció assumida, va poder publicar i representar les obres que anava escrivint com Three Dances from Henry VIII o Nell Gwyn Dances (1900), obres extraordinàriament ben rebudes. A partir del 1901, i després de la mort de Sullivan, es va dedicar de ple a la composició d'operetes moltes de les quals van assolir gran èxit com Merrie England (1902) i Tom Jones (1907) si bé no va assolir, tot i intentar-ho, la fama de Sullivan i Gilbert. Precisament amb aquest darrer hi va col·laborar en l'obra Fallen Fairies (1909), la que seria sorprenentment la seva última opereta. De fet i a partir d'aleshores, i potser decebut per l'escàs ressò de les seves darreres produccions, va deixar de compondre habitualment per a dedicar-se a la direcció orquestral si bé la seva delicada salut el va obligar a un retir prematur a finals de la dècada de 1920. No obstant, i pels seus mèrits, va ser reconegut amb el títol de Cavaller el 1928 i el 1934 va rebre una medalla d'or de la Royal Philharmonic Society. Finalment, va morir a Londres el novembre de 1936.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

Operettas:
pubd in vs only; many songs, duets, ensembles, dances and selections pubd separately
The Two Poets (2, W.H. Scott), RAM, July 1886; revised as The Rival Poets, St George’s Hall, 1901 (1901)
The Emerald Isle or The Caves of Carrig-Cleena (2, B. Hood), Savoy, 27 April 1901; completion by German of work begun by A. Sullivan; concert arr. (c1910)
Merrie England (2, Hood), Savoy, 2 April 1902; concert version (1908)
A Princess of Kensington (2, Hood), Savoy, 22 Jan 1903; concert selection (1909)
Tom Jones (3, R. Courtneidge, A.M. Thompson, C.H. Taylor after H. Fielding), Manchester, Prince’s, 30 March 1907; concert version (1913)
Fallen Fairies or The Wicked World (2, W.S. Gilbert), Savoy, 15 Dec 1909 [vs also pubd under temporay title of Moon Fairies]

Incidental music:
for orch unless otherwise stated; where published, in part only
Antigone (Sophocles), c1885, ?pf, vv (c1886) untraced
Richard III (W. Shakespeare), Globe, 16 March 1889 (?1890/?1891/1920); addns 1910
Henry VIII (Shakespeare), Lyceum, 5 Jan 1892; suite (?1893–8); addns 1910 [see sacred music: Grace; partsongs: Orpheus with his lute, Shepherd’s Dance]
The Tempter (H.A. Jones), Haymarket, 20 Sept 1893; suite (?1894/?1900)
Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare), Lyceum, 21 Sept 1895; suite (1895/96)
Michael and his Lost Angel (Jones), Lyceum, 15 Jan 1896, unpubd, lost
As You Like It (Shakespeare), St James’s, 1896; suite (1897) [see songs: It was a lover and his lass]
Much Ado about Nothing (Shakespeare), St James’s, 16 Feb 1898
English Nell (A. Hope, E. Rose), Prince of Wales’s, 2 Aug 1900 (1901); later known as Nell Gwyn
The Conqueror (Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland), Scala, 23 Sept 1905
Arrs. as suites, dances and selections

Partsongs:
SATB and with pf unless otherwise stated
The Chase (E. Oxenford), (?1886)
Orpheus with his lute (Shakespeare), arr. from Henry VIII for S, S, A, pf or SSA, pf (1892); SATB, pf (1921), SSAATTBB, pf (1921), str qt (?with voices) c1920–25, unpubd [see incidental music]
O Lovely May (H. Wethered), (1894), SSA, pf (1921)
Who is Sylvia? (Shakespeare), unacc. (1894)
O peaceful night! (W.H. Scott), unacc. (1904), TTBB, unacc. (1904), SSA
The Three Knights (A. Cleveland), unacc. (1911), also TTBB, unacc. (1922)
Beauteous Morn (O.W. Holmes), SCC, pf (1912)
In Praise of Neptune (T. Campion) unacc. (1912), unison vv, pf (1925)
My bonnie lass, she smileth (trad.), unacc. (1912), 3 female vv, pf (1924)
Sleeping (trad. old English), unacc. (1912), TTBB, unacc. (1914)
London Town (J. Masefield), unacc. (1920), TTBB, unacc. (1921) lv, pf (1926)
Shepherds’ Dance (W.G. Rothery) SS, pf (1920), arr. of orch. dance from Henry VIII [see incidental music]

Songs:
for 1v, pf, unless otherwise stated
A Serenade (W.H. Pollock), 1v, pf, fl, ob, cl, bn, hn (?1890) [text reset in Lady mine (1913)]
3 Spring Songs (H. Boulton) (1898): All the world awakes today, The Dew upon the Lily, My song is of the sturdy North
4 Lyrics (Boulton) (1900): Sea Lullaby, Birds on wing, Fair flowers, In Summer Time
The Just So Song Book (R. Kipling) (1903): When the cabin portholes, The camel’s hump, arr. S, A, pf (1926), SATB pf (1927), This uninhabited island, I keep six honest serving-men, I am the most wise Baviaan, Kangaroo and Dingo, Merrow Down, Of all the tribe of Tegumai, The Riddle, The First Friend, There was never a Queen like Balkis, Rolling Down to Rio, arr. TTBB, pf (1916), SATB, pf (1925), SA, pf (1925)
6 Lyrics (Boulton) (1903): Wake up my nestling, White Snowdrops, Over the Heather, A Wild Rose, Meadows Green, From Wave to Wave
2 Lyrics (H.H. Spencer) (1904): A Fancy, Heigh-Ho!
3 Baritone Songs (1905): Come to the woods (S. Waddington), My Lady (F.E. Weatherly), Glorious Devon (Boulton)
3 Songs of Childhood (M. Lawrence) (1914): Wondering, The Chinese Mandarin, Bye-Low Land
Other songs (1881–5): Twilight, 1881, unpubd;
Ode to the Woodlark (R. Burns), c1884, unpubd;
A Midsummer Ghost, unpubd, lost;
Molly Malony, unpubd, lost;
Nevermore, unpubd;
A Summer Idyll, unpubd, lost;
Three Heavens, unpubd, lost;
3 leider, unpubd, lost

(1886–1900):
Fine Feathers (J.E. Carpenter), (?1886);
Fancy Free (A. Chapman), (?1887);
Little Sweethearts (R.S. Hichens), (?1888);
His Lady (Hichens), (?1889);
Story of a Monk (c1889) untraced;
A Wayside Story (c1889) untraced;
The Banks of the Bann (S. Lennox), (?1890), rev. as The Land of the Past (1904);
Little Boy Blue (Weatherly), (?1891);
Little Lovers (Hichens), (1891);
Ever Waiting (G.H. Newcombe), (1893);
In a Northern Land (Weatherly), (1893);
In the Merry Maytime (M. Blackett), (1894);
Springtime (?R. Jones), c1894 unpubd;
Who’ll buy my lavender? (C. Battersby), (1896), arr. lv, orch, unpubd;
Love, the pedlar (Battersby), (1899);
Sweet Rose (Bingham), (1899);
Woo me not (Battersby), (1899);
Early one morning (trad. old English), (1900);
Roses in June (Bingham), (1900)

(1901–25):
Daffodils A-Blowing (Battersby), (1901);
Love’s Awakening (B. Hood), c1901, unpubd;
Restless river (Bingham), (1901);
Cupid at the ferry (Battersby), (1904);
The Land of the Past (Bingham), (1904) [rev. of The Banks of the Bann (?1890)];
When Maidens go A-Maying (Boulton), (1906);
This England of ours (Boulton), (1907);
The Drummer-Boy (Boulton), (1908);
Little girl in red (A. Wilkins), (1908);
Love’s Barcarolle (Hood), (1908);
To Katherine Unkind (Hood), (1908);
Memories (Boulton), (1909);
Bird of Blue (Chrystabel), (1910);
Love in all Seasons (Hood), (1910);
Moorish Lullaby (M. Byron), (1910);
Big Steamers (Kipling), (1911);
An Old English Valentine (M. Farrah), (1911);
What ‘Dane-Geld’ Means (Kipling), (1911);
When we grow old (Spencer), (1911);
Alistair (S. Grant), (1912);
Court Favour (Hood), (1912)
Lady mine (Pollock), (1913) [see also: A Serenade (?1890)];
To Phyllis (?1914);
The Arrow That Went Wrong, parody (?E. German), 1916, unpubd;
Be well assured (Kipling), (1916);
Countryman’s Chorus (H. Taylor), (1916);
All Friends round the Wrekin (W.H. Scott), (1917);
Charming Chloe (Burns), (1917);
Have you news of my boy Jack? (Kipling), also with SSC (1917), orch. acc., unpubd;
The Irish Guards (Kipling), (1918), also arr. quick-step, pf duet, mil. band, 1918, unpubd;
Sails, ?c1920–25, unpubd;
The Lordling’s Daughter (anon. Elizabethan), (1925)

Songs for plays:
Lady Hilda’s Song (W.S. Gilbert: Broken Hearts), Savoy, 4 June 1888, 1v, orch, arr. 1v, pf;
It was a lover and his lass, S, C, orch, arr. S, C, pf (1897), 1v, pf (1919) [see incidental music: As You Like It];
3 Songs: Evadne’s Song, O Love that knew the morning, Cupid, Fickle Cupid, 1v, orch, arr. 1v, pf (1905) [see incidental music: The Conqueror]
Also separately pub. songs, duets and ensembles from operettas

Vocal religiosa:

Hymns and chants (1883), lost;
Te Deum, F, S, A, T, B, SATB, org, 1885 (1899);
Canada, patriotic hymn (H. Boulton), SATB, pf (1904), orch (Toronto, 1904);
Bread of Heaven, introit (J. Couder), SATB, kbd (1909);
Grace (Non nobis, Domine), SATB, arr. Henry VIII, 1910 (1911), also TTBB (1921) [see incidental music];
Morning Hymn, unis. vv, kbd, 1912, unpubd;
Intercessory Hymn (Father Omnipotent!), (W.H. Scott), SATB, kbd (1915) [arr. of Hymn (Homage to Belgium), see piano and organ]

Instrumental:

Orch.:
The Guitar, str, St James’s Hall, 27 June 1883 (?1887)
Bolero, vn, orch, St James’s Hall, 4 July 1884 (vn, pf, RAM, 26 Oct 1883) (c1885), untraced
Sym. no.1, e, St James’s Hall, 16 July 1887, rev. Crystal Palace, 13 Dec 1890; arr. pf duet (1904)
Marche solennelle, d, St James’s Hall, 15 Jan 1891, orch unpubd, lost, arr military band (D. Wight) (?1937)
On German Airs, ov., 1891, unpubd, lost
Gipsy Suite, Crystal Palace, 20 Feb 1892 (1894)
Sym. no.2, a, (‘Norwich’), Norwich Festival, 4 Oct 1893 (1931); arr. pf duet (1894)
Symphonic Suite, d, (‘Leeds’), Leeds Festival, 3 Oct 1895; 2nd mvt. rev. c1915
In Commemoration – English Fantasia, Philharmonic Society, 17 June 1897; rev. 1902 as Rhapsody on March Themes, later as March Rhapsody on Original Themes (1902–4; rev. 1912)
Hamlet, sym. poem, Birmingham Festival, 5 Oct 1897 (1898–9); rev. 1934
The Seasons, sym. suite, Norwich Festival, 5 Oct 1899 (1900); rev. 1914
Welsh Rhapsody, Cardiff Festival, 21 Sept 1904 (1905)
Coronation March and Hymn, Westminster Abbey, 22 June 1911; based on incidental music to Henry VIII [see incidental music
Theme and Six Diversions, Royal Philharmonic Society, Queen’s Hall, 26 March 1919
The Willow Song, tone picture, RAM, 19 July 1922

Chbr.:
Nocturne, vn, pf, RAM, 21 Oct 1882, unpubd;
Album Leaf, pf, vn, c1882, unpubd [previously titled Souvenir];
Chanson d’Amour, vn, pf, RAM, 26 Oct 1883, unpubd;
The Sprite’s Dance, vn, pf, Nov 1883, unpubd;
Cradle Song, vn, pf, 1883, unpubd [previous titled Barcarolle, Serenade];
Trio, D, vn, vc, pf, c1883, unpubd;
Encore Piece, vn, pf, Dec 1884, unpubd;
[Untitled], vn, pf, ?1884, unpubd [companion to Encore Piece]
Suite, fl, pf (1889), arr. vn, pf (1898);
Salterello, fl/pic, pf (1889);
Moto Perpetuo, vn, pf (1890);
Romance no.1, fl, pf (1890), arr. cl, pf (?1892);
Romance no.2, fl, pf (1890), untraced;
Salterelle, vn, pf (1890);
Scotch Sketch, 2 vn, pf (1890), orch arr., collab. H Gheel and German (1935);
Andante and Tarantella, cl, pf (1891);
Pastorale and Bourée, ob, pf (1891), arr. fl, pf (?1892), vn, pf (?1892), cl, pf (?1895);
Bachanalian Dance, Berceuse, vn, pf (1893) [arr. (un-noted) from The Tempter, see incidental music];
Serenade, wind, 1892, unpubd, lost;
Andante and Rondo, fl, ob, cl, bn, hn, pf, c1893, unpubd, lost
Intermezzo, fl, pf (1894), arr. vn, pf (?1914);
Souvenir, vn, pf (1896);
3 Sketches, vc, pf (1896): Valsette, Souvenir, Bolero, arr. vn, pf (1897), orch. arr., collab. A. Wood and German, as Cloverley Suite (1934);
Song Without Words, cl, pf (1898), arr. vn, pf (1898);
Old English Melody, Early one morning, arr. fl, pf (1901)
Arrs. of his operatic, orchestral and incid music for various insts, especially vn, pf

Piano and organ:
for pf solo unless otherwise indicated
Three Pieces for American Organ, c1882–7, ?unpubd, lost
Andante, B , org, c1883, unpubd
Suite, c1883–5 (?1889): Impromptu, Valse-Caprice, Bourée, Elegy, Mazurka, Tarantella
Sonata, G, 1884 [mvt 1 only] (York, 1987; missing final bars added by J. Brown)
Suite for Four Hands: Humoresque, Reverie, Valse Fantastique, Caprice; first pubd as Four Piano Duets (?1890): Allegretto, E, Andante, a, Allegro Moderato (Tempo di Valse), A, Allegro Spiritoso, g
Duet for Pf, c1890, unpubd;
Valse, A  (1890);
Valse, g, c1890, unpubd;
Graceful Dance (1891), arr. small orch, unpubd;
Polish Dance (1891);
Album Leaf (1892);
Intermezzo, a (1892);
Valsette (1892);
Berceuse, 1893 [arr. (un-noted) from The Tempter (see incidental music)];
Minuet, G (?1893);
Concert Study, A  (1894);
Impromptu no.2 (1894);
Melody, E  (1895);
Columbine, air de ballet (1899);
Song Without Words (1899);
Abendlied (1900);
Melody, E (1905);
The King of Love, hymn-tune prelude, org (?), 1907, unpubd;
Hymn (Homage to Belgium), 1914
Arrs. of his operatic, orchestral and incid music for pf solo, pf duet



Informació addicional... 

INTERPRETS: National Symphony Orchestra of IrelandAndrew Penny (conductor)
NAXOS: GERMAN, E. - Symphony No. 2 & Welsh Rhapsody
SPOTIFY: GERMAN, E. - Symphony No. 2 & Welsh Rhapsody



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