diumenge, 18 de desembre de 2016

RYBA, Jakub Jan (1765-1815) - Česká mše Vánoční (1796)

Zacarías González Velázquez - El nacimiento de San Francisco (1789)
Obra de Zacarías González Velázquez (1763-1834), pintor espanyol (1)




Parlem de Pintura...

Zacarías González Velázquez (Madrid, 1763 - Madrid, 31 de gener de 1834) va ser un pintor espanyol. Va començar la seva formació a l'estudi de Mariano Salvador Maella i a l'Acadèmia de Belles Arts de San Fernando, dirigida aleshores pel seu pare el pintor Antonio González Velázquez, va ser premiat els anys 1778 i 1781, respectivament. Com a decorador, va destacar amb els treballs que va realitzar pel Palau del Pardo i a la Casa del Labrador d'Aranjuez, amb representacions al·legòriques i mitològiques. Així mateix, va realitzar quadres religiosos per a particulars i també per a diverses institucions religioses com la Catedral de Jaén, la Catedral de Toledo o l'Oratori del Cavaller de Gràcia de Madrid. Va participar en la decoració per a les exèquies de la reina Maria Amàlia de Saxònia. També va destacar pel seu treball a la Reial Fàbrica de Tapissos de Santa Bàrbara, sobre esbossos de Mariano Salvador Maella, elaborant cartrons per a tapissos de temes marins, en els quals va mostrar el seu domini de la composició i on es va revelar com un gran colorista, sense oblidar els seus començaments acadèmics. Les seves obres es van emmarcar en la transició del barroc al neoclassicisme mostrant les més primerenques un predomini del dibuix sobre el color, mentre que en les seves darreres obres va mostrar un cromatisme més ric i un tractament més realista, especialment en els seus retrats. Va morir a Madrid el gener de 1834.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Zacarías González Velázquez (1763-1834) In english: Zacarías González Velázquez (1763-1834) - Altres: Zacarías González Velázquez (1763-1834)



Parlem de Música...

Jakub Šimon Jan Ryba (Přeštice, 26 d'octubre de 1765 - Rožmitál pod Třemšínem, 8 d'abril de 1815) va ser un compositor, professor i director de cor txec. Descendent d'una família de cantants, el seu pare Jakub Ryba (1732-1792) va ser un professor, organista i Kantor que va treballar musicalment a diversos llocs i també va ser, probablement, compositor. Tot i això, la seva era una família econòmicament pobre. Va rebre els primers fonaments musicals amb l'ajuda del seu pare a Nepomuk, rebent classes de cant, violí, violoncel i orgue i posteriorment ensenyament en composició i baix continu. Amb només deu anys ja va ser capaç de reemplaçar-lo a l'orgue. Des del 1781 al 1784 va assistir als Escolapis de Praga, on va estudiar música amb Cassianus Hanel, on va conèixer i va transcriure la música dels seus compatriotes Josef SegerJosef MyslivečekJohann Baptist Vanhal i la música d'autors com BachHaydn i Dittersdorf. També s'iniciaria en l'art de la composició. De tornada a Nepomuk des del 1786 va ser professor a Mníšek. L'11 de febrer 1788, va rebre la mateixa posició a Rožmitál i poc després, el 23 de maig del mateix any, va ser ascendit a director del cor de l'església local. El 1790 es va casar i va tenir tretze fills. L'escola va prosperar sota la seva supervisió però tenia conflictes constants amb el capellà i el consell eclesiàstic. El 1796, va escriure la seva obra més famosa, la Missa de Nadal txeca "Hey, Mestre!" (Missa Solemnis Festis nativitatis D. J. Ch. Accommodata in linguam bohemicum Musicam). Les seves obres inclouen, a banda d'incomptable música instrumental, moltes pastorals i misses però poques són les composicions, més enllà de la Missa de Nadal Txeca, que s'interpreten regularment. Actualment, és una de les misses més populars i representades de l'antiga Bohèmia i de molts dels països del seu entorn. Anys més tard, les mancances econòmiques i l'hostilitat dels seus superiors el van portar a suïcidar-se a Voltus l'abril del 1815.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

6 Singspiele and pantomimes, before 1801, incl.: Veselé živobytí neb vandrovní muzikanti [A Merry Life, or Wandering Musicians] (Spl), lib, 1794, music lost;
Das Denkmal in Arkadien (operetta), 1800, music lost except 1 aria, T, arr. as sacred aria Exaudi, Domine

Cz. songs, 1v, pf:
12 böhmische Lieder (Prague, 1800);
[12] Neue böhmische Lieder (Prague, 1808);
Lenka (V. Nejedlý) (Prague, 1808);
Průvod dobré Bětolinky [Procession of Good Bětolinka] (Nejedlý) (Prague, 1808);
Dar pilné mládeži [The Gift to Industrious Youth], 12 children's songs (Prague, 1829)
Herzensergiessung der Rossmittaler, gratulatory cant., 1803

Vocal religiosa:

c90 masses, incl.:
2 in Cz.;
2 [?4] in Cz. and Lat.;
some in sets, incl. Cursus sacro-harmonicus, i, 1808, iv, 1814;
Missa pastoralis bohemica (Hej, mistře) [Hail, master!] (Ryba), 1796, ed. J. Hercl (Prague and Hamburg, 1973);
Missa tono pietatis festis mediocribus accommodata, E  (Prague, 1814)

Other liturgical:
7 Requiem;
over 100 Lat. grads, motets (offs), some in sets, incl. Cursus sacro-harmonicus, ii, 1811, iii, 1812–14, v, 1814
Cz. songs, choruses (Ryba):
Oktáv neb osmidenní pobožnost k svatému Janu Nepomuckému [Octave, or the eight-day feast of St Jan Nepomuk], 8 songs (Prague, 1803);
Svatohorský kůr [The Svatá Hora choir], 8 songs (Prague, 1804);
[21] Pohřební písně [Funeral Songs] (Prague, 1805);
others

Other sacred:
3 Stabat mater, incl. 2 in Cz.;
Chvalozpěv k sv. Janu Nepomuckému [Eulogy to St Jan Nepomuk] (Ryba), 1803;
Soudný den [Judgment Day] (Ryba), 1801, lost;
c50 arias, several duets, incl. 8 ariae et duetto (Prague, 1808);
over 50 pastorellas (pastoral motets, offs), arias, mostly in Cz. (Ryba), incl. 2 pastorellas, ed. J. Berkovec (Prague, 1992)

Instrumental:

c1150 listed in Dlabacž, incl. over 650 dances, 130 variations, 87 sonatas, 72 qts, 56 duos, 48 trios, 38 concs., 35 syms., 35 serenatas and notturnos, 7 qnts etc.

Orch:
Sym., C;
Cassatio, C;
Vc Conc., C, 1800;
Vn Conc., d, 1801;
Hn Conc., E , inc. (doubtful)

Chbr:
2 str qts, a, d, 1801, 1 ed. H. Majewski (Wilhelmshaven, c1988);
Canon, F, str qt;
2 qts, C, F, fl, vn, va, vc, 1811, 1 ed. M. Klement (Prague, 1980);
3 sonatas, B , G, F, vn, vc;
2 duos, a, C, hpd/pf, vn;
Canon, d, 2 vn

Org:
Novae et liberae cogitationes per [1] toccatas, phantasias, [2] fugas et [2] praeludia expressae, inc., 1798

Literatura:

Schultagebücher (MS, Rožmitál pod Třemšínem, municipal museum, 1788–1815); Cz. trans., ed. J. Němeček, as Školní deníky J.J. Ryby (Prague, 1957)
Mein musikalischer Lebenslauf (MS, CZ-Ps D.A.III.36 op.6, 1801); Cz. trans., ed. I. Janáčková, as J.J. Ryba o svém hudebním životě (Prague, 1946)
Kancionálek pro českou školní mládež [Little hymnbook for Czech schoolchildren] (Prague, 1808)
Denik [Diary] (MS, CZ-Ppp heritage no.605a, 1811; Pnm IB6, 2/1813), 1st version ed. in Slavík (1888)
Počáteční a všeobecní základové ke všemu umění hudebnímu [First and general principles of the whole art of music] (Prague, 1817)
Nábožný kancionál [Pious hymnbook] (Jihlava, n.d.)

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Jakub Jan Ryba (1765-1815) - Altres: Jakub Jan Ryba (1765-1815) 



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

Over the years, the Czech Christmas Mass "Hej, mistře" (Hail, master!) by Jakub Jan Ryba has become an inherent part of Czech tradition. This is mainly owing to the simplicity, the emotional impact and pure comprehensiveness of Ryba's music. These are also the attributes that have been accepted without exception by all interpreters taking part in this recording. It has been the intention to record Ryba's Christmas music with an approach and a spirit that are as close as possible to the original intention of the composer. In addition to the Czech Christmas Mass, the present release also includes Ryba's Missa pastoralis, which has been recorded here for the first time. In the Czech lands in the eighteenth century, music occupied an irreplaceable position. Based on along tradition, it drew on perennial local resources. Apart from their basic school duties, country schoolmasters were also musicians and music teachers. Teaching music in elementary schools was important for educational and social reasons. It gave talented pupils access to many ecclesiastical and secular scholarships, especially those for choristers, allowing them to go to higher schools; and the musical talent of students opened up opportunities for employment in private or public service. Music and school were the main sources of activity for the many promoters of the Czech national revival of that time, and Jakub Jan Ryba, as teacher, writer, poet and composer, was one of those who made a great contribution through their prolific creative work. Jakub Jan Ryba was born the son of a teacher, organist and composer on 26th October 1765 in Přeštice. When he was seven, the family moved to Nepomuk, where he also started attending school. His father taught him to play the violin, the piano and the organ. His first attempts at composition from that time have not been preserved. In the late 1770s the young Ryba started learning the basics of Latin grammar and Greek. His father, wanting to give his clever son a higher education, tried to secure one of the secular scholarships for him, but without success. 

Help finally came from Ryba's uncle, Jan Vaniček, who took him to Prague in 1780 to study at the Piarist Gymnasium. Apart from his studies, he devoted much of his time to music. He learnt the cello, and went on to play in the St Wenceslas Seminary and in church choirs. He also played the organ in the Church of St Salvator. Having started to earn an income by playing the cello or organ in church choirs and selling his compositions, Ryba could afford to go to the opera. In this way he became familiar with the music of many composers, especially Italian opera composers, and also with the music of Mozart. Later, he was to conduct Mozart's Marriage of Figaro in Prague. In 1784 Ryba found that a teaching post in Nepomuk had become vacant and he gave up his studies as well as his plans for making a mark on Prague's musical life. It was at that time that many of the scholarships were abolished, and it was highly unlikely that under these changed conditions Ryba would have been able to support himself and his studies. He applied for the teaching position and received an appointment notice as an assistant teacher on condition that he presented his teaching qualifications. After a teaching course he obtained qualifications to teach in parish schools and spent a short period in the school at Nepomuk, leaving in 1786 left to teach in Mníšek where, besides his teaching work, he started composing, with works including the Festive Mass in D major, three other Masses, and a hymn, lste Confessor. In February 1788 Ryba came as a new teacher to Rožmitál, where he was to spend the longest period of his life. Here, in 1790, he married Anna Langlerova, who bore him nine children. It was in Rožmitál that Ryba composed his most important and popular works. 

In 1788 he wrote his Missa pastoralis in D major using Latin as well as Czech texts, a work for which there is no surviving autograph. It may be assumed that for most ordinary church-goers the pastoral mass with its Latin text was made more familiar by using the tunes of popular carols and folk-songs, and Czech texts set to music would be even closer to the listeners. Pastoral scenes, too, were included in the liturgy, mostly in the interchangeable sections of the Mass or at the end. Their inclusion in the fixed sections of the Mass was probably a constant source of debate. Ryba wrote his Christmas Mass "Hail, master!" in 1796. Its programmatic sequence basically follows the plot used in the folk Christmas Nativity plays. In a rather unusual treatment of the introductory sections, Ryba demonstrates his ability to create a dramatic increase of tension among the listeners. The angel voices do not announce the birth of the Saviour until the second section of the Mass, the Gloria. In the first section, the Kyrie, the shepherds argue about the possible causes of the natural phenomena observed in the night. In the Graduale and the Credo the shepherds are preparing for their journey to Bethlehem. The Offertory pays homage to the new-born child. The three final sections, Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei, are presented as celebratory songs of praise before the cradle, with the choir in the final passage praying for peace on Earth to men of good will. Although in form this work has all the hallmarks of a Mass, the use of text and musical setting make it more like a Christmas cantata.A characteristic feature of both Masses on this recording is the bright mood of joy and the feeling of happiness radiating from every note. The schoolmaster of Rožmitál always seemed to have bright, expressive and memorable tunes at his fingertips. In his music Ryba achieved the aim that he pursued throughout his life: to speak clearly and vividly to people's hearts. On 8th April 1815 Ryba took his own life in the forest outside Rožmitál, apparently as the result of progressive internal depression.

NAXOS (source/font: aquí)

Gaudiu i compartiu! 



Informació addicional... 

INTERPRETS: Virtuosi di Praga; Kühnuv detský sbor
RECICLASSICAT: RYBA, Jakub Jan (1765-1815)
MULTISONIC: RYBA, J.J. - Česká mše Vánoční
IMSLP: No disponible
SPOTIFY: RYBA, J.J. - Česká mše Vánoční



Tant si us ha agradat, com si no, opineu, és lliure i fàcil!

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