dilluns, 15 d’agost de 2016

100 anys després, celebrem i commemorem els desconeguts

Thomas Eakins - The Champion Single Sculls (Max Schmitt in a Single Scull) (1871)
Obra de Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins (1844-1916), pintor estatudinenc (1)



- 100è aniversari de compositors a qui difícilment escoltarem -



Parlem de Pintura...

Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins (Filadèlfia, 25 de juliol de 1844 - Filadèlfia, 25 de juny de 1916) va ser un dels pintors realistes nord-americans més importants del segle XIX. Va treballar al marge dels estils europeus contemporanis, convertint-se en el primer artista important, després de la Guerra Civil nord-americana (1861-1865), en realitzar una obra profunda i plena de força extreta, directament, de l'experiència de la vida del seu país. Va néixer a Filadèlfia i va estudiar dibuix a l'Acadèmia de Belles Arts de Pennsylvania des del 1861 fins el 1866. Els seus estudis d'anatomia a l'Escola de Medicina Jefferson el van motivar a sentir un gran interès durant tota la seva vida pel realisme científic. Eakins va viure tres anys a París, 1866-1869, on va estudiar a l'Escola de Belles Arts. Va rebre gran influència de les obres de mestres del segle XVII, en particular de RembrandtJosep de Ribera i Diego Velázquez, que el van impressionar pel seu realisme i penetració psicològica. El 1870 va tornar a Filadèlfia definitivament. Els quadres d'Eakins mostren escenes i persones quotidianes de Filadèlfia, sobretot de la seva vida familiar i de la dels seus amics. Va posar en pràctica les seves inclinacions científiques en obres amb vaixells de vela, remers i temes de caça, en els quals dibuixava l'anatomia del cos humà en moviment. Va pintar diversos quadres amb escenes que transcorrien en hospitals, de grans dimensions i força expressiva, entre els quals destaca La clínica Gross (1875, Escola de Medicina de Jefferson, Filadèlfia), en la qual combina un detallat realisme (el tema és una operació quirúrgica) amb una agudesa psicològica en el retrat del cirurgià, el doctor Gross. 

Com a director de l'Acadèmia de Belles Arts de Pennsylvania, va introduir la innovadora assignatura d'anatomia i dissecció, així com la perspectiva científica, la qual cosa va revolucionar l'ensenyament artístic als Estats Units. Tanmateix, la seva insistència en fer estudis de nus va escandalitzar les autoritats de l'Acadèmia que el van obligar a renunciar al seu càrrec el 1886. Durant l'última època de la seva carrera artística l'interès científic d'Eakins va quedar desplaçat per l'estudi de la psicologia i de la personalitat dedicant-se al retrat d'amics, científics, músics, artistes i clergues. A més de la seva magistral plasmació de la personalitat, aquests retrats es caracteritzen per un realisme absolut i per un sentit escultòric de la manera que s'evidencia en el marcat volum dels caps, cossos i mans dels retratats. Un bon exemple dels seus retrats de cos sencer és La cançó patètica (1881, Galeria d'Art Corcoran, ciutat de Washington), que mostra la figura dreta d'un cantant amb una túnica de seda, retallada contra la tènue llum de la cambra de música. Encara que cap de les seves obres li va proporcionar popularitat i fortuna, Eakins va exercir una profunda influència, com a pintor i professor, en el desenvolupament del naturalisme als Estats Units. Possiblement, el seu acostament realista a la pintura va ser massa avançat per la seva època. Va morir a Filadèlfia el juny de 1916.




Parlem de Música...

Ugene Anthiome (Lorient, 19 agost de 1836 - Versailles, 24 de juliol de 1916) va ser un compositor francès.


Anthiome étudia au Conservatoire de Paris l'Harmonie avec Antoine Elwart, l'orgue avec François Benoist et la composition avec Michele Carafa. En 1861 il remporta le Second Grand Prix de Rome avec sa cantate Atala. À partir de 1863 il enseigna au Conservatoire ; plus tard il y fut nommé professeur de piano, poste qu'il conserva jusqu'en 1901. En 1889 il eut Maurice Ravel comme élève, en classe préparatoire de piano. Anthiome écrivit nombre de pièces pour piano, des opérettes ainsi que des mélodies. Il écrivit aussi une méthode de piano (L’Art du piano, méthode pour les commençants, Paris 1880).

OBRA:

La Naissance du Christ, oratorio (manuscrit)
Grande Marche funèbre à la mémoire de Giacomo Meyerbeer, pour grand orchestre (manuscrit), 1864-66
Semer pour récolter, opéra-comique en un acte, 1866
Les Noces de Prométhée, cantate (manuscrit), 1867
Berceuse, Lied, 1868
Chanson de Nemorin, 1873
Chansons d’Estelle, 1873
Grand Trio pour violon, violoncelle et piano, 1873
Le Dernier des Chippeways, opérette en un acte, 1876
Air de ballet pour violon et piano, 1877
Don Juan marié, la leçon d'amour, opérette en un acte, 1878
Le Roman d'un jour, opéra-comique en trois actes, 1884
Un Orage espagnol, opérette en un acte, 1887
Fantaisie romantique pour violon et piano, 1889
À un ange, mélodie d'après Alphonse Boeul, 1893
Sommeil et Triomphe de Bacchus, scène mythologique pour orchestre, 1893
Cantate sacrée tirée des Écritures Saintes pour orgue (manuscrit), 1895
Menuet favori de Mme de Maintenon pour clavecin, 1896
Concerto en ut mineur pour piano et orchestre, 1898
Fugue pour piano, 1899
Six Mélodies bretonnes (textes de Paul Barret), 1900
Six Pièces pour clavecin, 1901-05
Allemande pour clavecin, 1904
Deux Préludes pour piano, 1911

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: No disponible - Altres: Ugene Anthiome (1836-1916)



Friedrich August Wilhelm Baumfelder (Dresden, 28 de maig de 1836 - Dresden, 8 de setembre de 1916) va ser un pianista, director i compositor alemany.


Was a German composer of classical music, conductor, and pianist. He started in the Leipzig Conservatory, and went on to become a well-known composer of his time. His many works were mostly solo salon music, but also included symphonies, piano concertos, operas, and choral works. Though many publishers published his work, they have since fallen into obscurity. Friedrich Baumfelder was the third of seven children. His father was Carl Friedrich Gotthelf Baumfelder (1798–1865), a school reformer and pedagogue, and his mother was Friederike Ernestine (1806–1882). At an early age, Baumfelder was admitted to the Leipzig Conservatory where he studied with Ignaz Moscheles and Moritz Hauptmann and later obtained a scholarship. His other teachers included Johann Schneider and Julius Otto. After leaving the Leipzig Conservatory, Baumfelder returned to Dresden where he worked as a cantor and music and piano teacher at the Dreikönigskirche. He taught Georg Schumann, who became one of his most successful students. In 1875, he became director of the Robert Schumann Singakademie, a post he held for several decades. Eventually, he became a successful and well known teacher and composer. As Baumfelder gained recognition, he often went abroad to England, France, and later, the United States to perform. He and his wife Emma Baumfelder (née Skrimshire) had had five sons and two daughters: Henry (1864–1900), Fritz (1867–1888) (who composed as well), Florence (1869–1954), William (nickname Willie) (1870-fl.1901), Gustav Baumfelder (1870-1931), Selma Marie Elisabeth (1871-1949), and Herbert Alfred Maria (1872–1946), Baumfelder composed more than 400 works, including symphonies, overtures, piano concerti, operas, choral works, and solo piano music. His Confidence, Op. 48 (lost), Rondo Mignon, Op. 49, Kinderscenen, Op. 270, and Rococo, Op. 367, were among his most popular works, and his Tirocinium musicae, Op. 300 was greatly demanded. A great number of his works are lost, having been destroyed in World War II, and only a part of his oeuvre survives today. His most known compositions today are the Peasant Dance from Op.208 and the Melody in F major (opus unknown or not assigned), which are played by students studying piano.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Friedrich August Wilhelm Baumfelder (1836-1916) - Altres: Friedrich August Wilhelm Baumfelder (1836-1916)



Rodolphe Berger (Wien, 4 d'abril de 1864 - Barcelona, 18 de juliol de 1916) va ser un compositor austríac.


Le compositeur autrichien Rodolphe Berger effectue sa carrière entièrement en France, entre 1890 et 1914. Il a principalement composé des valses pour piano, des musiques pour des opéras-comiques et opérettes, qui furent publiées sous la forme de livrets et de recueils illustrés par des artistes alors en vogue comme Maurice Biais, Misti, Léonce Burret, François et Victor Clérice, Auguste Roubille, Jacques Wély, etc. En 1908, il compose la musique de l'opéra-comique d'Armand Silvestre et d'Henri Cain, Le Chevalier d'Éon, donné au théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin en avril. On lui doit également une valse intitulée « Amoureuse », enregistrée en 1913 par l'accordéoniste américain d'origine italienne Pietro Frosini. Et la musique de la Marche des Cambrioleurs, célèbre chanson comique de Jean Daris, créée par Victor Lejal au Caveau des Oubliettes en 1898.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: No disponible - Altres: Rodolphe Berger (1864-1916)



Tanburi Cemil Bey (Istanbul, 1873 - Istanbul, 28 de juliol de 1916) va ser un compositor otomà.


Was an Ottoman tambur, yaylı tambur, kemençe, and lavta virtuoso and composer, who has greatly contributed to the taksim (improvisation on a makam/maqam) genre in Ottoman classical music. His son, Mesut Cemil Bey, is an equally renowned Turkish tambur virtuoso. Cemil Bey was born in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, in 1871 or 1873; his birth date is uncertain. He took his first lessons in music from Kanuni Ahmet Bey and the violin player Kemani Aleksan, his first instruments thus being the violin and the kanun. After completing middle school, he continued in a school for civil servants (Mülkiye), but then devoted himself to music and abandoned his education. He began to play the tanbur quite early in his youth and by the age of 20, his renown had already spread among the tamburis of Istanbul. Reforming the traditional playing technique of the tambur, he developed an energetic technique based on a rich and agile picking style, lightening to a great extent the sonority of this instrument. Later on, he set about playing the Turkish classical kemençe and attained an astonishingly high level of technique, so much so that the virtuosity level of the Ottoman kemençevi of Greek-Gyspy origin Vassilis (1845–1907), considered as then as "the reference", came to be thought of by certain amateurs to be outmatched... He was also the inventor of the Yaylı tambur. Cemil Bey was able to play any instrument he picked up: he played lavta, cello, yaylı tanbur, zurna and several other instruments with equal virtuosity. His taksims and instrumental works he recorded on 78rpms with tanbur, kemençe, lavta, cello and yaylı tanbur had considerable impact on generations of musicians following him. The peşrevs and sazsemais he composed are pieces of great taste, requiring a developed performance technique. He was a very sensitive and nervous person, who eventually suffered from alcoholism. Most of his compositions have been preserved in his recordings, but some of his work were incomplete when he died.

OBRA:

Bestenigâr Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Ferahfezâ Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Ferahfezâ Peşrev (Muhammes)
Hicâzkâr Peşrev (Muhammes)
Hicâzkâr Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Isfahân Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Isfahân Peşrev (Devr-i kebîr)
Kürdîlihicâzkâr Peşrev (Muhammes)
Mâhûr Peşrev (Muhammes)
Mâhûr Peşrev (Muhammes)
Muhayyer Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Muhayyer Peşrev (Devr-i kebîr)
Nevâ Peşrev (Devr-i kebîr)
Şedarabân Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Şedarabân Peşrev (Fahte)
Sûz-i Dilarâ Saz Semâî (Aksak semâî)
Nikrîz Zeybek (Aksak)
Nikrîz Longa (Nîm sofyân)
Kürdîlihicâzkâr Şarkı (Aksak) - Def-i Nalis Eylerim Hep Seyri Ruhsarınla Ben
Hüseynî Şarkı (Devr-i hindî) - Gormek Ister Gozlerim
Şehnâz Şarkı (Sengîn semâî) - Feryad Ki Feryadım
Nihâvend Şarkı (Yürük semâî) - Sevdim Seni Ey İşvebaz
Mâhûr Şarkı (Ağır Aksak semâî) - Var İken Zâtında Böyle Hüsn-ü An

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Tanburi Cemil Bey (1873-1916) - Altres: Tanburi Cemil Bey (1873-1916)



Wilson Cooper (17 de desembre de 1850 - West Palm Beach, 17 de juliol de 1916) va ser un compositor nord-americà.

American tunebook compiler, arranger and composer. In 1902 he published The Sacred Harp, Revised and Improved (Dothan, AL), a revision of B.F. White and E.J. King's The Sacred Harp (Philadelphia, 1844), in which he arranged the formerly three-part tunes for four voices. When J.S. James published another version of The Sacred Harp (1911) in four parts, Cooper filed a law suit claiming James had used his alto parts in the book; the suit was dismissed on the grounds that an alto voice alone was not an original composition. Further editions of Cooper's book appeared in 1907, 1909 (the last in which he is listed as the publisher) and 1927. With the 1949 edition the name of the Cooper revision changed to The B.F. White Sacred Harp; it reappeared under that title in 1960 and again in 1992. The last two editions have been widely used by Sacred Harp singers in north-west Florida, south Alabama, south Mississippi and east Texas. Cooper was also known to have published the Zion Songster. Considered an outsider by those who had been associated with B.F. White before he died (1879), Cooper was criticized by Sacred Harp singers from Georgia and north Alabama, who charged that he had transposed tunes, changed familiar titles and added gospel songs to the Sacred Harp collection. His alto parts, however, became models for future alto additions. He also contributed approximately 19 new tunes, including three anthems: The Crucifixion, Mother, the Dearest Friend, and Whom Shall I Fear?. These, written in the style associated with in shape-note hymnody, though without the benefit of strophic, folk-like melodies, are especially worthy of mention. The Crucifixion (the only anthem by Cooper remaining in the 1992 edition) manages within these restrictions to create a memorable and appropriately stark expression.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: No disponible - Altres: Wilson Cooper (1850-1916)



Cesare de Sanctis (Albano Laziale, 15 de juny de 1824 - Roma, 27 de gener de 1916) va ser un musicòleg, compositor, director d'orquestra i tractadista italià.

La seva primera educació musical la va rebre a Roma. Fou mestre de capella en les esglésies de la Minerva i de Sant Joan dels Florentins, en la mateixa capital, i director de les orquestres dels principals teatres lírics del seu país. El 1877 assolí la plaça de contrapunt en el Liceo Musicale, de Roma, consagrant-se des de llavors per sencer a l'ensenyança i a la composició. En el seu temps se'l considerava com un dels mestres més cultes i complets. Entre les seves obres destaquen un Rèquiem a 4 veus (1872), un obertura de concert i diverses misses i fugues. També va publicar un Trattato d'armonia i altres de fuga i contrapunt.

Font: En català: Cesare de Sanctis (1824-1916) En castellano: No disponible In english: No disponible - Altres: Cesare de Sanctis (1824-1916)



Peter Dodds Mccormick (Port Glasgow, 1834 - Sydney, 30 d'octubre de 1916) va ser un compositor australià.


Es mejor conocido por haber sido quien compuso el himno nacional de Australia «Advance Australia Fair». Nació en Port Glasgow, Escocia, hijo de un marinero. Llegó a Sídney (en ese momento la ciudad principal de la colonia británica de Nueva Gales del Sur) en 1855. Los detalles de sus primeros años, antes de su llegada a Australia, son inciertas. Pasó la mayor parte de su vida como empleado del Departamento de Educación de Nueva Gales del Sur. En 1863 en la Saint Mary's National School fue nombrado profesor a cargo y pasó a enseñar en la escuela de denominación Presbiteriana en Woolloomooloo, suburbio de Sídney, en 1867. Luego se trasladó al Dowling Plunkett Street Public School en 1878, donde permaneció hasta 1885. McCormick estuvo muy involucrado en la Iglesia Presbiteriana de Escocia y participó activamente en varias organizaciones comunitarias y de beneficencia.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Peter Dodds Mccormick (1834-1916) In english: Peter Dodds Mccormick (1834-1916) - Altres: Peter Dodds Mccormick (1834-1916)



Franz Eckert (Neurode, 5 d'abril de 1852 - Seoul, 6 d'agost de 1916) va ser un compositor alemany.

Was a German composer and musician who composed the harmony for Japan's national anthem, "Kimigayo" and the anthem of the Korean Empire, "Aegukga". Eckert was a native of Neurode, Prussian Silesia (now Nowa Ruda, Poland), and the son of a court official. He studied in the conservatories of Breslau (Wrocław) and the Royal Conservatory in Dresden, and specialized in military music at Neiße. He received an appointment to become bandmaster to the Kaiserliche Marine at Wilhelmshaven, where he caught the attention of the Japanese government in 1879. Eckert was invited to the Empire of Japan as a foreign advisor at the behest of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Eckert served as director of the Navy Band from 1879-1880. At the time, the need for an anthem was especially pressing in the Navy, as Japanese officers were embarrassed by their inability to sing their own anthem at flag ceremonies at sea. The existing anthem had been created by John William Fenton in 1869.[2] Eckert rearranged the existing anthem per the Gregorian mode for Western instrumentation, making suitable modifications for playability at sea, including a four-part vocal arrangement. The new national anthem was first performed in the imperial palace on Emperor Meiji's birthday, 3 November 1880. Between 1883 and 1886 he worked in the Ministry of Education for the Music Examination Board in the area of wind and string music. However, his most important task was the publication of the books of songs for use in Japanese elementary schools. In March 1888, Eckert joined the Department of Classical Music of the Imperial Household Ministry, established the military band of the Imperial Guards, and founded the military band of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. He was active in composing ceremonial music for both the Court and for the military, while introducing a variety of Western musical instruments and musical theories on melody and harmony.

In 1897, he was invited to compose a special song, which he titled Kanashimi no kiwami, for the funeral of Empress Dowager Eishō (widow of Emperor Kōmei). Eckert returned to Germany in 1899 due to ill health, and obtained a posting at the Berlin Philharmonic, but was soon appointed music director to Kaiser Wilhelm II. However, his stay in Germany was short, and soon after his health had improved, he accepted an invitation extended by the Korean Empire to build a court orchestra and to train musicians in European musical instruments and techniques. Eckert arrived in Seoul on 19 February 1901. His duties in Korea were similar to those he had previously executed in Japan. He soon had a small court orchestra of two dozen musicians established, which he subsequently built up to 70 members. The orchestra performed regularly at the court, but has played every Thursday in Pagoda Park for the general public and for Seoul-based expatriate community, during which performances, Eckert took the opportunity to publicize his own compositions, as well as those of Richard Wagner. Eckert was soon called upon to supply the harmony for the national anthem of Korea, the Daehan jeguk Aegukga which premiered on 9 September 1902. The new anthem had elements from the works of Wagner, and was played before Emperor Gojong, who was himself a Prussian enthusiast. However, only a few years later, in 1910, Korea was annexed by the Empire of Japan, and the anthem was banned in favor of Eckert's earlier creation, the Kimigayo. Eckert remained in Korea, but in much reduced circumstances due to loss of his royal patrons. His situation was complicated by renewed ill health, and the outbreak of World War I, and in 1916, he resigned as conductor of his orchestra in favor of his first flautist, whom he had trained as his successor. Eckert died in Seoul from stomach cancer at age 65. His grave is located at Yanghwajin Hapjeong-dong Mapo-gu Seoul.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Franz Eckert (1852-1916) - Altres: Franz Eckert (1852-1916)



Josep Ferrer i Esteve (Girona, 13 de març del 1835 - Barcelona, 7 de març del 1916) va ser un guitarrista i compositor català.


De nissaga torroellenca refugiada a Girona durant les guerres carlines, el 1840 la seva família tornà a la població empordanesa. Allí, Josep Ferrer començà a estudiar música amb son pare, guitarrista i col·leccionista de partitures; a partir de 1860, s'establí a Barcelona, on tingué per mestre Josep Brocà. El 1862, Ferrer començà a donar classes de guitarra, alternant aquesta tasca amb l'ofici de fotògraf. Vint anys més tard s'establí a París, per ensenyar a l'Institut Rudy i a l'Académie Internationale de Musique; també hi oferí gran nombre de concerts de guitarra, que li donaren fama com a instrumentista. Fou professor del Conservatori del Liceu de Barcelona del 1898 al 1901. Després d'una nova estada a París, s'instal·là definitivament a Barcelona el 1898, on visqué de l'ensenyament i la composició fins a la mort. El seu catàleg (que alguns estudiosos xifren en tres-centes cinquanta obres i altres rebaixen a un centenar) es compon de peces per a guitarra sola, sovint en l'estil aleshores conegut com a musique de salon, duos per a guitarra i flauta, obres per a piano i cançons; moltes de les seves composicions són de caràcter pedagògic i estan dedicades a alumnes. També escrigué un mètode per a guitarra, que restà inèdit. El fons bibliogràfic de Josep Ferrer passà, a la seva mort, a mans de Domènec Bonet i, cap al 1930, fou venut a Domènec Prat, autor d'un famós Diccionario de guitarristas (vegeu la Bibliografia). En morir aquest darrer, fou dispersat entre els seus alumnes. El seu mestre, Josep Brocà, li dedicà l'obra La Amistad.

OBRA:

Per a guitarra sola:
Adagio. op. 60
Agréements du Foyer, trois pièces faciles. op. 32
El Amable (extret de la Colección 8ª de Ejercicios y preludios)
La Ausencia, andante sentimental. op. 61
Balada. op. 59
Barcarola. op. 54
Belle, gavotte. op. 24
Brisas del Parnaso. Quatro piezas. op. 6
Brise d'Espagne, valse caractéristique. op. 36
Canto de amor, vals de concierto. op. 20
Canto del Bardo, capricho. op. 48
Charme de la Nuit, nocturne. op. 36
Colección de valses
Cuatro piezas faciles. op. 50
Cuatro piezas progresivas. op. 4
La Danse des Naïades, mazurka. op. 35
De noche en el lago, fantasía con variaciones. op. 14
Doce minués. op. 12, dedicada a Francesc Tàrrega
Dos nocturnos. op. 11
Dos tangos. op. 19 (Tango número 1, Tango número 2)
Echos de la Forêt, mélodie-valse. op. 22
Elegía fantástica. op. 13, dedicada a Josep Brocà
Los encantos de París, capricho fantástico. op. 16
L'Estudiant de Salamanque, tango-valse. op. 31
Fantasía con variaciones sobre un tema de Bériot. op. 3
Feuilles de Printemps, sis pièces très faciles. op. 27
La Gallegada, fantasía pastoril con variaciones. op. 15
Gerbe de Fleurs, quatre pièces faciles. op. 40
El Gondolero, melodía. op. 51
La Mascarita, mazurka. op. 52
Horas apacibles, ocho piezas fáciles. op. 8, dedicada al seu alumne Apel·les Mestres
Impresiones juveniles, vals brillante. op. 18
Inquietud. op. 57
Marcha nupcial. op. 62
Melodía nostálgica (extret de Estudios, colección 4ª)
El Mensajero, vals. op. 55
Minué. op. 49
Minué. op. 56
Misiva afectuosa. op. 58
Nostalgia
Pensées du Soir, nocturne. op. 43
Pensées Mélodiques, quatre pièces. op. 37
Polonesa. op. 10
Quejas de mi lira: vals. op. 2
El ramillete, diez pequeñas piezas. op. 5
Récits Champêtres, trois mélodies. op. 30
Recuerdos del Montgrí: capricho. op. 1, dedicada al seu mestre Josep Brocà
Resignation, andante. op. 28
Rêve du Poëte. op. 43
Serenata española. op. 63
Sinceridad, melodía-vals. op. 53
Soliloquio, nocturno. op. 46
Les Soupirs, valse. op. 33
Souvenir du Quinze Août, romance sans paroles. op. 25
Souvenirs d'Antan, six menuets. op. 39, premi en el concurs internacional organitzat per Acadèmia Literària i Musical de França
El talismán, vals. op. 7
Tendresse Paternelle, mélodie expressive. op. 29
Tres valses. op. 9
Trois Mélodies. op. 42
Urania, nocturno. op. 47
Vals en la menor
Vals en mi menor
Veillées d'Automme, quatre pièces faciles. op. 21 (> 1882)
Veladas Intimas, cuatro piezas. op. 17

Per a dues guitarres:
Bolero. op. 38, per a piano i una o dues guitarres
Mazurka, per a dues guitarres
Mélancolie, nocturne. op. 23, per a flauta i una o dues guitarres
Minué, per a dues guitarres
Sérénade Espagnole. op. 34, per a dues guitarres
Les Sirènes, valse. op. 25, per a banjo i una o dues guitares
Terpsichore, valse. op. 45, per a dues guitarres
Vals original, per a dues guitarres

Adaptacions per a guitarra:
La Calesera, canción andaluza de Sebastián Iradier, per a veu i guitarra
La Colasa, canción madrileña d'Iradier, per a veu i guitarra
El Jaque, canción española d'Iradier, per a veu i guitarra

Obres per a piano:
La craintive. Polka-mazurka, op. 2 (ca. 1882)
Las dos hermanas: polka mazurca (ca. 1870)
La exposición: vals (1885)
El himno de Suez: vals brillante
La inquieta: polka (ca. 1870)
Ismalia: galop (ca. 1870)
Loreto: americana (ca. 1870)
Misterio: capricho schotisch (1876)
Le premier salut aux beaux-arts: mélodie variée (ca. 1882)
La tranquila: redowa (1885)




Alban Förster (Reichenbach im Vogtland, 23 d'octubre de 1849 - Neustrelitz, 18 de gener de 1916) va ser un compositor alemany.

S'educà en el Conservatori de Dresden, desenvolupant més tard la plaça de mestre concertista, successivament a Carlsbad, Wroclaw i Stettin. El 1881 passà a Dresden per a professor d'aquell Conservatori, i el 1882 a Neustrelitz com a director de la Capella Reial. El 1893 succeí a Klughardt en la direcció de la Capella Reial de Dessau. Compongué tres òperes: Das Flüstern; Die Mädchen von Schilda i S'Lorle, estrenades, respectivament, el 1875, 1887 i 1891, la primera a Neustrelitz i les dues restants a Dresden.

Font: En català: Alban Förster (1849-1916) En castellano: No disponible In english: Alban Förster (1849-1916) - Altres: Alban Förster (1849-1916)



Erennio Gammieri (Campobasso, 1836 - Sant Petersburg, 1916) va ser un compositor italià.

Figlio di Luigi e di Francesca Gravina. Dotato di spiccato orecchio musicale e di buona tonalità di voce, fin da ragazzo entra nel Real Collegio San Pietro a Majella di Napoli, dove studia canto, solfeggio e pianoforte. Successivamente segue un corso di formazione in composizione con i maestri Gennaro Parisi e Carlo Conti ed è ammesso a cantare in orchestra. Nel 1859 conosce una nobile napoletana, la contessa Graziosi e si trasferisce a San Pietroburgo dove riceve l'incarico di "Maestro concertatore" al teatro Imperiale, conquistando subito il pubblico esigente e colto della capitale russa. Molte le opere composte dal Gammieri: Tommaso Chatterton 1867; "L'assedio di Firenze", opera tratta dal romanzo di G. Guerrazzi e libretto di Michelangelo Pinto; "Niccolò dei Lapi", dramma lirico di notevole successo; oltre a numerosissime composizioni per pianoforte ed orchestra ed una sonata per pianoforte e violino.

Font: En català: Erennio Gammieri (1836-1916) En castellano: No disponible In english: No disponible - Altres: Erennio Gammieri (1836-1916)



William Wallace Gilchrist (Jersey City, 8 de gener de 1846 - Easton, 20 de desembre de 1916) va ser un director i compositor nord-americà.


The family moved to Philadelphia in 1855. Starting in 1865, he studied singing, the organ and composition with Hugh A. Clarke for three years. After a brief period in Cincinnati he returned to Philadelphia in 1874, and became organist and choirmaster at St Clement's Episcopal Church. Around 1877 he became organist at Christ Church, then moved to the Church of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian), where he served for many years as organist and choirmaster. Among the composition prizes he won were the Abt Male Singing Society Prize in 1878, the Cincinnati Festival Association Prize in 1882 for his setting of Psalm xlvi (judged by Saint-Saëns, Carl Reinecke and Theodore Thomas), and three prizes awarded by the Mendelssohn Club of New York in the 1880s. Colleagues honoured him with six testimonial concerts between 1882 and 1916. Gilchrist founded the Philadelphia Mendelssohn Club, which he conducted from 1874 to 1914; he taught privately and at the Philadelphia Musical Academy from around 1881, and conducted the Symphony Society of Philadelphia from 1892 to 1899. In 1891 he founded the Manuscript Music Society, dedicated to the promotion and performance of music by local composers. The University of Pennsylvania awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1896, the year he became one of the founder members of the American Guild of Organists. Gilchrist was a serious, romantic composer whose works are thoughtfully constructed. Important American firms published most of the choral music and songs. The Philadelphia Orchestra performed his Symphony in C during its first season in 1901. He edited the Presbyterian Church's official hymnal (1895) and The Hymnal for Use in Congregational Churches (1902), and co-edited 17 widely used music readers.

OBRA:

(selective list)

Vocal:

God is our Refuge and Strength (Psalm xlvi), S, 4vv, orch (New York, 1882)
8 Songs (Boston, 1885)
The Rose (J.R. Lowell), ballad, Mez, 4vv, orch, vs (New York, 1887)
Prayer and Praise, solo vv, 4vv, pf/org (New York, 1888)
The Legend of the Bended Bow (F. Hemans), cant., Mez, male vv, pf 4 hands (New York, 1888)
330 Exercises for Sight Singing Classes (Philadelphia, 1891)
Uplifted Gates, 4vv, pf 4 hands (New York, 1894)
Songs for the Children (Philadelphia, 1897)
A Christmas Idyll, solo vv, 4vv, orch (Boston, 1898)
6 Scotch Songs (R. Burns) (Philadelphia, 1898)
The Syrens (Lowell), 4 female vv, fl, hn ad lib, vn, vc, pf (New York, 1904)
An Easter Idyll, solo vv, 4vv, orch, org, vs (New York, 1907)
2 Tennyson Songs (Boston, 1908)
The Lamb of God (orat, J. Montgomery), vv, orch/org (New York, 1909)
The Knight of Toggenberg (trans. from F. von Schiller), ballad, A, female vv, orch, vocal score (Boston, 1911)

Instrumental:

Orch:
Sym. no.1, C, 1891, US-PHf;
Sym. no.2, D, inc., completed by W. Happich, 1933, PHf;
Sym. poem, g, c1910, PHf;
Suite, G, pf, orch, PHf

Chbr:
Une petite suite, pf 4 hands (Boston, 1885);
Nonet, g, fl, cl, hn, str, pf, 1910, PHf;
Quintet [no.1], c, pf, str, unpubd;
Quintet no.2, F, pf, str, perf. 1914, PHf

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: William Wallace Gilchrist (1846-1916) - Altres: William Wallace Gilchrist (1846-1916)



Manuel Giró (Lleida, 5 de setembre de 1848 - Barcelona, 20 de desembre de 1916) va ser un compositor i organista català.

Als vuit anys aprengué solfeig, cantant de tiple en diferents capelles. Desitjant seguir la carrera eclesiàstica, entrà en el Seminari, on estudià llatí i filosofia, però als 19 anys abandonà els estudis i va resoldre dedicar-se a l'art musical. Resultà un organista excel·lent, de manera que a voltes suplia al seu mestre Magí Pontí a l'orgue de la catedral de Lleida. Va romandre en aquest lloc fins als vint-i-dos anys. Cursà els estudis d'harmonia amb Francesc Oliver. Veient que a Lleida li mancaven elements per desenvolupar el seu talent musical, determinà de passar a Barcelona, on va romandre quatre anys donant lliçons de música. El 1873 es traslladà a París, on hi va estar quinze anys. Donà a conèixer, amb èxit, el 1875 les obres Salve Regina als Concerts Pasdeloup, un fragment de les quals fou cantat per Pierre Gailhard baix de l'Òpera. Després compongué una simfonia en quatre temps, Sinfonía Mozárabe per a l'orquestra Colonne. Tingué l'honor que se li executés per l'orquestra del Conservatori una obra religiosa que produí un gran efecte. El 1879 l'editor Hengel li publicà una col·lecció de cançons titulada Tras los Montes, que fou la cosa que més contribuí a fer Giró conegut de tots els diletants parisencs. A més, publicà una «lamentació de Jeremies», que fou executada en els concerts Pasdeloup amb cors, orquestra i solistes. I el 1883 estrenà el ballet Fiesta andaluza a l'Opéra de París. Però el que més contribuí a donar reputació en Giró fou un gran ball amb cors, executat a l'Òpera a benefici dels alsacians i lorenesos. Tota la premsa, unànime, declarà Giró un compositor de gran esdevenidor.

Després tornà a Barcelona, on el 6 de juny de 1885 estrenà l'òpera en quatre actes Il rinnegato Alonso García al Gran Teatre del Liceu, que assolí un èxit satisfactori, malgrat un fluix llibret des del principi al final, extremadament llarg i embolicat. Els ballables d'aquesta òpera figuraren durant molt de temps en els programes de tots els concerts. En la mort de Julián Gayarre, amb el qual l'unia una entranyable amistat, va compondre un rèquiem en memòria, que fou executat com a concert als teatres Liceu i Líric, de Barcelona, sota la direcció del mestre Modest Subeyas Bach. Més tard donà conèixer en el teatre Novedades de la capital catalana l'òpera espanyola Nuestra Señora de París, de la qual es feren un bon nombre de representacions. La seguí l'estrena d'El sombrero de tres picos (Madrid, 1893) que no va gaudir de gaire èxit. A més, deixà inèdits un drama líric en tres actes, titulat Ermantho, que guanyà el primer premi en un concurs celebrat a Madrid amb la compensació de 5.000 pessetes; una altra òpera en un acte, El estudiante de Salamanca; una òpera en tres actes titulada Florinda; un poema en dues parts per a veus i orquestra, En lo terreno y en lo eterno, i on hi figura un Magnificat per a gran orquestra, i, finalment un poema titulat Guerra, amb llibret també seu. Va compondre quatre òperes més així com obres simfòniques, corals i de cambra. Entre les obres corals, destaca l'himne Montserrat, amb lletra de Maragall i estrenada pel cor de l'Orfeó Popular olotí, el dia de Santa Cecília de 1914. Es convertí en una peça que s'interpretava en totes les festes solemnes

Font: En català: Manuel Giró (1848-1916) En castellano: No disponible In english: Manuel Giró (1848-1916) - Altres: No disponible



Vicente Goicoechea Errasti (Ibarra de Aramayona, 5 d'abril de 1854 - Valladolid, 8 d'abril de 1916) va ser un compositor basc.


És considerat un dels personatges més importants pel que fa a l’evolució de la música religiosa de la península Ibèrica del darrer terç del segle XIX. Goicoechea pertanyia a una família de músics i es traslladà de jove a Valladolid per estudiar al seminari conciliar. La seva formació musical fou en bona mesura autodidàctica, llevat d’algun mestratge ocasional; com el de F. Gorriti. Conegué l’obra de J.S. Bach, C. Franck i C. Gounod, com també la dels cecilianistes alemanys i de la polifonia del segle XVI. Tot aquest bagatge ajudarà a configurar el seu estil propi. El 1890 obtingué la plaça de mestre de capella de la Catedral Metropolitana de Valladolid. La música de culte catòlic passava per un moment crític. Marginada pels autors més rellevants i amb més formació de la música sacra. Goicoechea va iniciar una reforma que tindria una amplia repercussió en tot el territori peninsular, seguint de prop els moviments restauradors de Solesmes y Ratisbona. Adquireix una valuosa biblioteca musical amb les edicions més recents dels grans autors de polifonia clàssica. No sense oposició, va anar introduint importants modificacions en el repertori de la Catedral de Valladolid, introduint les grans obres d’autors del segle XVI com Morales, Palestrina i Victoria; i del segle XIX com Eslava i Gounod. Va dirigí l’Orfeó Vasco-Navarro, formació que sota la seva tutela arribà a altes cotes de qualitat, i introduí la formació musical, abans inexistent, al seminari de Valladolid. Considera de summa importància la formació dels responsables parroquials, per la qual cosa assumeix la instrucció musical del seminari, en el que crea una “Schola Cantorum” i estableix l'ensenyança del Cant Gregorià i de la polifonia clàssica, cosa fins llavors totalment inusual. A més a més, treballa amb els alumnes de la universitat de Valladolid, creant un orfeó amb els estudiants “vasco-navarros”.

L'any 1904, va suposar un canvi en el món de la música sacra. És l'any en què Sant Pius X, recentment consagrat Papa, publica el seu “Motu proprio”, establint les bases per una radical reforma de la música sacra. Goicoechea ja portava anys exercint aquesta tasca i en aquells anys ja era un compositor de gran prestigi. Goicoechea col·laborava ja amb Vicente Arregui. Aviat se'ls van unir joves amb una solida formació com Nemesio Otaño, Julio Valdés, Marcelino Villalba, José M. Olaizola, Gaspar Arabaolaza, etc. Les idees d'aquest cercle reformista van tenir un gran pes en el primer Congrés de música Sagrada, celebrat a Valladolid a l'abril de 1917. Nemesio Otaño va dirigir el congrés però juntament a ell sempre trobarem a Vicente Goicoechea. Arrel del congrés es va decidir aplicar a nivell nacional el que Goicoechea venia fent a Valladolid des de 1890. Cal destacar l'assistència de músics bascs, atrets per les figures de Goicoechea i Otaño. Com a vehicle d'aquestes inquietuds es va fundar la revista “Música Sacro-Hispana”, que va començar editant-se a Valladolid per traslladar-se posteriorment a Bilbao i a Vitòria. "la paternidad de su nombre se debía al insigne maestro don Vicente Goicoechea. La humildad de aquel músico excelente no le permitió escribir en nuestra revista más que el título. però él supo dirigirla y encauzarla por los senderos del verdadero arte religioso español, con sus continuos consejos y sabias orientaciones. Él fue hasta su muerte el mejor censor de cada número" ("Música Sacro Hispana", agosto de 1907, p.72; abril de 1911, p.65). Arrel del congres de música de Valladolid, Goicoechea considera complerts els seus objectius i conclosa la seva carrera. Els seus deixebles ja eren majors d’edat. Així doncs Goicoechea passa a un segon pla tot i que seguirà col·laborant activament en l'organització dels congressos de Sevilla i de Barcelona. La seva salut cada cop era més delicada i portava una vida retirada tot i que segueix component fins a la seva mort.

Va ser un músic de prestigi; les seves obres han estat interpretades fora de l’Estat espanyol. La producció de Goicoechea està dedicada exclusivament a la música religiosa. Cal destacar: El Miserere i el Christus factus est, unes obres amb les quals aconsegueix efectes de notable grandiositat amb una relativa simplicitat de recursos. L’any 1890 es decisiu en la seva activitat creadora: marca el pas de la seva època juvenil dels “Gozos” (dedicats a diversos sants) a un període de reflexió i maduresa. Es confirma la seva personalitat artística i es perfila el seu ideal de la música sacra. Les obres de Goicoechea es van avançar més de deu anys a la reforma de Sant Pío X. Tres de les obres anteriors a la reforma del Papa són: los “Maitines”, las “Kalendas” i els “Responsorias”. Va compondre també diversos motels: O Cor, amoris víctima", "Ave, verum Corpus", "Tantum ergo". Al principi del segle XX començà a interessar-se cada cop més per la música polifònica del Renaixement, fet que es reflectí en les seves creacions. Entre 1902 i 1904 va compondre les seves obres més reconegudes: "Oremus pro Pontífice", que més tard es transformarà en el seu popular "Ave María"; el salm "Credidi", conegut en la seva versió del "Benedictus"; la seva reconeguda "Missa en honor de la Inmaculada Concepción"; el salm "Miserere" y el responsori "Christus factus est". També en aquest període va compondre “la Nona” tot i que va ser retocada i modificada més tard. Goicoechea va seguir component fins al final de la seva vida. Cap al final de la seva carrera, a partir del congres de música de Valladolid, i quan la seva salut comença a decaure va compondre obres com: "Salve Regina" en honor a Andra Mari de Ibabe, diverses misses a cappella per Advent i Quaresma, la versió definitiva de la "Nona" per l’oficio de l'Ascensió; i diversos motets. Podem observar la influencia de J.S. Bach en el "Te Deum". Dels seus últims anys són la lamentació "Cogitavi" y la "Missa de Rèquiem".

Font: En català: Vicente Goicoechea Errasti (1854-1916) En castellano: Vicente Goicoechea Errasti (1854-1916) In english: Vicente Goicoechea Errasti (1854-1916) - Altres: No disponible



Mildred J. Hill (Louisville, 27 de juny de 1859 - Chicago, 5 de juny de 1916) va ser una musicòloga i compositora nord-americana.


Was an American songwriter and musicologist, who composed the melody for "Good Morning to All", later used as the melody for "Happy Birthday to You". Mildred J. Hill, born in Louisville, Kentucky, was the oldest of three sisters, Mildred, Patty, and Jessica. She learned music from her father, Calvin Cody, and Adolph Weidig. It has been reported that Mildred Hill was a kindergarten and Sunday-school teacher, like her younger sister Patty. Prof. Robert Brauneis, after extensively researching the Hill family, has concluded that she was not a kindergarten teacher. She moved into music, teaching, composing, performing, and specializing in the study of Negro spirituals. Hill and her sister were honored at the Chicago World's Fair for their work in the progressive education program at the experimental kindergarten, the Louisville Experimental Kindergarten School. She wrote about music using the pen name Johann Tonsor, and her 1892 article "Negro Music", suggesting that the existing body of black music would be the basis of a distinctive American musical style, influenced Dvořák in composing the New World Symphony. Hill died in Chicago, Illinois, in 1916, long before her song became famous. She is buried with her sister in Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville, Kentucky. Mildred Hill's manuscripts and papers are held by the University of Louisville Music Library in Louisville, Kentucky. While teaching at the Louisville Experimental Kindergarten School, the Hill sisters wrote the song "Good Morning to All"; Mildred wrote the melody, and Patty the lyrics. The song was first published in 1893 in Song Stories for the Kindergarten as a greeting song for teachers to sing to their students. "Happy Birthday to You" first appeared in print in 1912 using the melody of "Good Morning to All" with different lyrics. Its popularity continued to grow through the 1930s, with no author identified for the new lyrics, nor credit given for the melody from "Good Morning to You". Based on 1935 copyright registrations by the Summy Company, and a series of court cases (which all settled out of court), the sisters became known as the authors of "Happy Birthday to You". The Hill Foundation today shares royalties on public performances of the song. However this was brought into question after a judge ruled against the legitimacy of the copyright.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Mildred J. Hill (1859-1916) - Altres: Mildred J. Hill (1859-1916)



Nikolay Ivanovich Kazanli (Tiraspol, 17 de desembre de 1869 - Petrograd, 5 d'agost de 1916) va ser un director i compositor rus.


He was educated at the Odessa Music School (1879–83) and at the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied under Rimsky-Korsakov (1891–4); he also took lessons from Balakirev. From 1897 he made regular appearances as a conductor in the major cities of western Europe: an enthusiastic advocate of Russian music, he conducted the first German performance of Glinka's Ruslan and Lyudmila at Munich in 1899. He supervised the music teaching in the military schools of St Petersburg, and was a member of the commission for the improvement of Russian military music. He composed the opera Miranda (performed in 1910), orchestral music and choral works, and edited over 100 classical pieces for small orchestra; he also wrote articles on music for both the Russian and the German press.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Stage:
Miranda (Poslednyaya bor'ba) (op, Polilov), St Petersburg, Mariinsky, 1910, pf score (Leipzig, 1908)

Other:
Rusalka, 1v, orch, 1897;
Lenora, 1v, orch, 1897;
Velikaya panikhida [Requiem], chorus (Moscow, 1912);
Songs;

Instrumental:

Orch:
Sinfonietta, G, 1893;
Sym., f, 1897;
Glinkiana (Moscow, 1908);
Villa u morya [The Villa by the Sea], sym. fantasy after Böcklin, 1913, pf 4 hands (Leipzig, 1917);
Concerto sinfonico russo, 1913;
Noch' karnavala [Carnival night], 1914 (Leipzig, 1916)

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Nikolay Ivanovich Kazanli (1869-1916) - Altres: No disponible



Edward Keuverls (Antwerp, 8 de març de 1853 - Ekeren, 29 de gener de 1916) va ser un director i compositor belga.

He studied the violin, piano and organ at the Vlaamse Musiekschool in Antwerp, and completed his training in harmony, counterpoint, orchestration and composition with Peter Benoit, director of the school. In 1871 he was appointed répétiteur and accompanist there; in 1882 be became conductor of the Nederlandse Schouwburg, Antwerp, and composed music for its productions. A staunch supporter of Benoit, he worked hard to promote spoken lyric drama (see Melodrama) and was closely involved in setting up in 1890 the Nederlands Lyrisch Toneel, where many of Benoit’s works were introduced and for which Keurvels composed the lyric drama Parisina. From this theatre developed De Vlaamse Opera (1893), which he conducted for many years. His work for the theatre was prolific and included excellent translations of Wagner’s operas. In 1896 he founded and conducted the well-known ‘Zoo concerts’, held in the Antwerp Zoological Gardens. Besides working closely with Benoit at the Vlaamse Musiekschool, he was also active in founding the Koninklijk Vlaams Conservatorium (1898) and in 1902 set up the Peter Benoit-Fonds for promoting Benoit’s works. Some of Keurvels’s numerous songs, choruses and cantatas are paraphrases of Flemish music.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Stage:
Parisina (lyric drama, F. Gittens, after Byron), Antwerp, 1890;
incid music for Hamlet, Nou

Others:
Hooggetij (vaderlandse kindercantate, M. Sabbe), vv, orch;
De dietsche tale (cant.);
Hulde aan het onderwijs; In ’t woud, male vv, 1884;
Het kloksken van Kafarnaum, vv, 1912;
Thabor, vv;
Mass, vv, org;
songs

Instrumental:

Poppetjes-verdriet, pf;
Spelemeien, pf;
Kinderideaal, vc

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Edward Keuverls (1853-1916) - Altres: No disponible



Karl Klindworth (Hannover, 25 de setembre de 1830 - Stolpe, 27 de juliol de 1916) va ser un pianista, compositor i director d'orquestra alemany.


Estudià piano amb Franz Liszt a Weimar, continuant després els estudis de composició amb mestres diversos, encara que es pot dir que el domini de la tècnica amb la pràctica d'aquest art al front d'orquestra i de companyies d'òpera. Des de Londres, on residí 14 anys, a partir de 1854, anà a Rússia com a professor de piano del Conservatori de Moscou. Durant la seva estada allà realitzà l'obra que ha donat notabilitat al seu nom, o sigui la reducció per a piano de “L'anell del nibelung”, de Richard Wagner, treball començat en ocasió de la visita del gran compositor a Anglaterra el 1855, i la notable edició crítica de les obres de Chopin. Ambdues van merèixer lloances generals dels musicòlegs i professionals, especialment la transcripció pianística de la “Tetralogia wagneriana”, per la fidelitat com la que reflecteix l'arranjament de la complicada orquestració del compositor alemany. En retornar a Alemanya, el 1882, fou director dels Concerts Filharmònics, de Berlín, alternant amb Joseph Joachim i Franz Wüllner, i de la Societat Wagneriana. En aquesta capital fundà una escola de Música que durà fins al 1893, any en què Klindworth es retirà a Potsdam per a dedicar-se per sencer a l'ensenyança. Entre les seves composicions originals cal citar-se una difícil “Polonesa-fantasia” per a piano, i entre altres arranjaments pianístics d'obres simfòniques el de la “Simfonia en do major” de Franz Schubert, i el del poema de Piotr Ilitx Txaikovski, “Francesca de Rimini”.

Font: En català: Karl Klindworth (1830-1916) En castellano: Karl Klindworth (1830-1916) In english: Karl Klindworth (1830-1916) - Altres: Karl Klindworth (1830-1916)



Henri Kowalski (Paris, 1841 - Bordeaux, 8 de juliol de 1916) va ser un pianista i compositor polonès.


He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1853 and studied the piano under Marmontel, Prudent and Anatole Petit and composition under Carafa and Samuel David. After experience as a chorister at the imperial chapel and as pianist at the Opéra he began in 1858 a concert career which included tours of southern France (1864), Germany and Spain (1868), England, the USA and Canada (1869, 1876) and Australia (1880–82). By 1870 he had composed many songs and sacred works and over 100 piano pieces, including the celebrated Marche hongroise (1864). In 1870 he was music critic of L’Europe; his first opera, the five-act Gilles de Bretagne, was produced unsuccessfully by Vizentini at the Théâtre Lyrique in 1877. He went to Melbourne in 1880 to give a series of concerts and act as French juror at the International Exhibition, and subsequently toured country centres in Victoria and other states. He acted as overseas correspondent to Le Figaro, began work on a comic opera by the Melbourne writer Marcus Clarke and enhanced his reputation for personal generosity, charm and pianistic virtuosity. He returned to Europe for the première of his ‘Australian’ opera Moustique in Brussels (1883) but in 1885 finally settled in Sydney, where he was much more appreciated (Pougin had called his A travers l’Amérique ‘absolument insignificant et dénué d’intérêt’). He was appointed conductor of the Sydney Philharmonic Society (1886–9) and was co-founder with Leon Caron of Sydney’s Orpheus Club (1887–91), and his activities included teaching, concert appearances (often for the benefit of Australian artists), the establishment of a French musical depot to promote his native music and polemics calling for government subsidy of his training schemes to improve theoretical and practical standards in Australia. Many of his piano pieces and songs were performed, as were his three-act lyric opera Vercingetorix (Sydney and Melbourne, 1881) and an oratorio The Future Life (Sydney, 1895).

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Henri Kowalski (1841-1916) - Altres: Henri Kowalski (1841-1916)



Albert Lavignac (Paris, 21 de gener de 1846 - Paris, 28 de maig de 1916) va ser un professor, musicòleg i compositor francès.


He studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Marmontel, Bazin, Benoist and Ambroise Thomas, winning premiers prix in solfège (1857), piano (1861), harmony and accompaniment (1863) and counterpoint and fugue (1864), and a second prix for organ (1865). In 1871 he returned to the Conservatoire as a lecturer in solfège; four years later he was made a professor and from 1891 he taught harmony classes. He wrote songs and light piano pieces, but is better known for his writings, both pedagogical and historical. His numerous works for use in teaching solfège and harmony remain in wide circulation. The Cours complet … de dictée musicale, written at the request of Thomas, then director of the Conservatoire, prompted the introduction of dictation courses in several European conservatories. Lavignac’s Ecole de la pédale, a collection of material drawn from various piano methods, was apparently the first book devoted entirely to this subject. His most important historical project was the founding of the Encyclopédie de la musique et Dictionnaire du Conservatoire which he edited until his death. Publication was resumed in 1920 under the editorship of Lionel de La Laurencie, on whose death in 1933 the work was abandoned. The Encyclopédie covers both history and practical techniques of music and is noteworthy for its sizable portion on non-European music; the dictionary section never materialized. In La musique et les musiciens he discusses form as an elastic process, an attitude maintained by his pupil Debussy. Lavignac defends the binary concept of sonata form and describes the ‘liberty and adventure’ that faces a composer. Even so, he extols the virtues of pre-established tonal and formal paradigms, revealing his standing on the cusp of tradition and change at the century’s end.

OBRA:

Cours complet théorique et pratique de dictée musicale (Paris and Brussels, 1882)
Preface to M. Simon: Cours complet … des principes de musique (Paris, 1886)
Ecole de la pédale (Paris, 1889, ?2/1927)
La musique et les musiciens (Paris, 1895, rev., enlarged 1950; Eng. trans., 1899, with addns by H.F. Krehbiel, 4/1903)
Le voyage artistique à Bayreuth (Paris, 1897, rev. 1951 by H. Busser; Eng. trans., 1898, as The Music Dramas of Richard Wagner, 2/1904/R)
Les gaités du Conservatoire (Paris, 1899)
with 20 others: Collection complète des leçons d’harmonie (Paris, 1900)
L’éducation musicale (Paris, 1902, 4/1908; Eng. trans., 1903)
Notions scolaires de musique (Paris and Brussels, 1905–6)
Cours d’harmonie théorique et pratique (Paris, 1907)
Abrégé de la théorie des principes fondamentaux de la musique moderne (Paris, 1909, 2/1914)
Théorie complète des principes fondamentaux de la musique moderne (Paris and Brussels, 1909)
Solfège des solfèges (Paris, 1910–11; Eng. trans., 1924, as Singing Exercises)
ed.: Encyclopédie de la musique et Dictionnaire du Conservatoire (Paris, 1920–31) [vols.i–iii only, work continued by L. de La Laurencie]

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Isidore Edouard Legouix (Paris, 1 d'abril de 1834 - Boulogne, 15 de setembre de 1916) va ser un compositor francès.


His father was the founder of a Parisian publishing house whose management later passed to Edouard’s brother Gustave (1843–1916) and Gustave’s son Robert. Edouard studied at the Paris Conservatoire with Henri Reber (harmony) and Ambroise Thomas (composition), winning the premier prix for harmony in 1855 and an honourable mention in the Prix de Rome in 1860. He soon devoted himself to a career in light opera and operetta; his one-act Un Othello (1863) was the first of several successes. The craftsmanship of his works is notable and, according to Feschotte, some survived long after the composer's death in the French broadcast repertory. The operas tended to be fashionable and escapist; Clément and Larousse particularly noted the extravagance of the plot and incoherence of ideas in Les dernières grisettes.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Un Othello (?opérette, 1, C. Nuitter and A. Beaumont [A. Beaume]), Champs-Elysées, 1863, vs (?1863);
Le lion de St-Marc (opéra-bouffe, 1, Nuitter and Beaumont), St-Germain, 24 Nov 1864 (1866);
Ma fille (opérette, 1, A. Bouvier), Délassements-Comiques, 20 March 1866;
Malbrough s’en va-t-en guerre [Act 2] (opéra-bouffon, 4, W. Busnach and P. Siraudin), Athénée, 13 Dec 1867, collab. Bizet, E. Jonas and Delibes
Le vengeur (opéra-bouffe, 1, Nuitter and Beaumont), Athénée, 20 Nov 1868, vs (1869);
Deux portières pour un cordon (pochade, 1, Lucian [L. Dubuis and Lefèbvre]), Palais-Royal, 19 March 1869, vs (?c1869), collab. Hervé, Lecocq and G. Maurice;
L’ours et l’amateur des jardins (bouffonerie musicale, 1, Busnach and Marquet), Bouffes-Parisiens, 1 Sept 1869, vs (1869);
La tartane (opérette, 1), ? London, c1872, vs pubd as The Crimson Scarf (London, 1872)
Les dernières grisettes (opéra-bouffe, 3, Nuitter and Beaumont), Brussels, Fantaisies-Parisiennes, 12 Dec 1874;
Le mariage d’une étoile (opérette, 1, V. Bernard and E. Grangé), Bouffes-Parisiens, 1 April 1876, vs (1876);
Madame Clara, somnambule (folie, 1), Palais-Royal, March, 1877;
Une nouvelle Cendrillon (opérette bouffe, 1, E. Adenis), 1885, vs (1885)

Unperf. [pubd in vs in Magasin des demoiselles]:
Quinolette, c1870 (opérette, 1, P. Nac);
La clef d'argent, c1870 (opérette, 1, Beaumont);
La fée aux genêts (opérette)

Doubtful:
Après la noce (1, P. Boisselot) [listed in StiegerO]

Other works:
songs;
pf works, many pubd

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Nikolay Nikolayevich Lodïzhensky (St Petersburg, 20 de desembre de 1842 - Petrograd, febrer de 1916) va ser un diplomàtic i compositor rus.

His father was a cousin of Dargomïzhsky. In 1866 he became acquainted with the Balakirev circle. While pursuing a career in the diplomatic service he also composed, but few of his works were completed and, when he was posted to the Balkans, he gave up composition altogether. He was later appointed consul in New York, and on his return to Russia founded the Society for the Unification of the Orthodox and Anglican Churches. Though accepted socially by Balakirev and his friends, Rimsky-Korsakov regarded him as ‘bizarre, incomprehensible, eccentric, intelligent, educated and talented, and apparently fit for nothing’. Few were impressed by his music, though Rimsky referred to a ‘powerful, purely lyrical gift for composition’ and Stasov remarked that his songs were ‘full of poetry, talent and intense emotion’. Lodïzhensky composed parts of an opera, Dmitry samozvanets (‘The False Dmitry’, based on the episode of Russian history used by Musorgsky in Boris Godunov), sections of a cantata entitled Rusalka, and sketches for a symphony, all of which remain in manuscript. In 1873 he published a set of six songs, which reveal a gift for attractive melody and an ability to create an appropriate and imaginative musical atmosphere. A further set of four songs, Rekviyem lyubvi (‘Requiem of Love’), was completed in 1880 and performed in 1882 at a musical evening at the home of Nikolay and Aleksandra Molas (née Purgold, Rimsky-Korsakov's sister-in-law) in the presence of Balakirev, Stasov, Glazunov, Borodin and Blumenfeld, but it remained unpublished.

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Hamish MacCunn (Greenock, 22 de març de 1868 - London, 2 d'agost de 1916) va ser un professor, director i compositor escocès.

He was the son of a shipowner, and his mother was a former pupil of Sterndale Bennett. In his culturally privileged childhood, MacCunn was encouraged in his musical pursuits, attending a season of concerts at the age of eight given by August Manns at Crystal Palace, London. He won a composition scholarship to the newly opened Royal College of Music in 1883, where he studied composition with Parry and piano with Franklin Taylor. He also played the viola in college orchestras and quartets. In 1886 he resigned from the RCM without taking a diploma. MacCunn's first compositions of substance were heard at concerts in the RCM (Cior Mhor, 1885), but more importantly, through the influence of George Grove, at the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts under Manns. Many of his major orchestral and choral works date from this period, being performed at the Saturday Concerts and elsewhere. Some songs and smaller works were included in a series of concerts at the house of the artist John Pettie, whose daughter he married in 1888. MacCunn was Professor of Harmony at the RAM from 1888 to 1894 and also gave lessons privately. In 1889 MacCunn was commissioned by Carl Rosa to write a work for his opera company, and the opera Jeanie Deans was first produced at the Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, in 1894. It was a huge success and marked the beginning of his association with various operatic companies as a conductor. For two seasons from 1898 he conducted the Carl Rosa Company, including the first English-language productions of Wagner's Tristan and Siegfried.

After Sullivan's death MacCunn took up his position at the Savoy until 1905, conducting the first run of German's Merrie England; he also worked with other groups such as the Moody-Manners Company, and towards the end of his life he took on some of Beecham's conducting seasons at Covent Garden (1910) and the Shaftesbury Theatre (1915). From 1912 he taught composition at the Guildhall School of Music. Most of MacCunn's music was written to a literary stimulus, often generated by his fellow-countryman Sir Walter Scott. The opera Jeanie Deans, the cantata The Lay of the Last Minstrel, and the overture Land of the Mountain and the Flood, easily his most famous work, fall into this category and supplied the composer with suitable nationalist subjects for his music. His other works are similarly descriptive or illustrative and he generally eschewed the use of absolute musical forms, as did his compatriots Mackenzie and Wallace. MacCunn's aptitude for drama in music is best shown in Jeanie Deans, a work that stayed in the repertory for over 20 years; it has also been revived in recent times. His later dramatic works lacked its musical intensity and its narrative conviction and were not successful. Many of his stylistic tendencies in the early operas evolved from Wagner, and he has since been described, together with Ethel Smyth, as ‘Wagner's most noteworthy British follower’. His orchestral overtures show a distinct technical mastery of form and orchestration, drawing their stylistic influence from Weber, Mendelssohn, Schumann and Brahms, yet retaining a certain creativity lacking in lesser composers. He also assimilated his native Scottish music into his works without detriment to a more cosmopolitan style.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Stage:
Jeanie Deans (grand op, 4, J. Bennett, after W. Scott: The Heart of Midlothian), Edinburgh, Lyceum, 15 Nov 1894, GB-Lcm, Lam, vs (1894)
Diarmid (grand op, 4, Duke of Argyle after Celtic legends), op.34, London, Covent Garden, 23 Oct 1897 vs (London and New York, 1897)
Breast of Light (Duke of Argyle), inc.
The Masque of War and Peace (L. Parker), London, Her Majesty’s, 13 Feb 1900 (1900)
The Golden Girl (light op, B. Hood), Birmingham, Prince of Wales, 5 Aug 1905, MS lost
Prue (light op, 3, C.H. Taylor), inc.
The Pageant of Darkness and Light (stage pageant in 6 episodes, J. Oxenham), 1908 vs (1908)
Additional nos. for The Talk of the Town (Taylor), 1905 (1905); A Waltz Dream, 1908–9 (1909)

Choral and vocal:
The Moss Rose (Krumacher), cant., 1882–4, London, RCM, 1885
Lord Uillin’s Daughter (Campbell), 4vv, orch, 1887, London, Crystal Palace, 18 Feb 1888 (1888)
Bonny Kilmeny (Hogg), solo vv, 4vv, orch, op.2, Edinburgh, 13 Dec 1888 (1888)
The Lay of the Last Minstrel (Scott), solo vv, 4vv, orch, op.7, Glasgow, 18 Dec 1888 (1888)
The Cameronian’s Dream (J. Hyslop), Bar, 4vv, orch, op.10, 1889, Edinburgh, 27 Jan 1890 (Edinburgh, 1890)
Queen Hynde of Caledon (Hogg), solo vv, 4vv, orch, op.13, 1891, Glasgow, 28 Jan 1892, vs (1892)
Psalm viii, 4vv, org, Glasgow, 1901 (Dundee and Edinburgh, 1901)
The Wreck of the Hesperus (H.W. Longfellow), 4vv, orch, London, Coliseum, 28 Aug 1905 (1905)
Four Scottish Traditional Border Ballads, vs (1913): Kinmont Willie, 4vv, orch; The Jolly Goshawk, 4vv, orch; Lamkin, 4vv, orch; The Death of Parcy Reed, male vv, orch
Livingstone the Pilgrim (S. Horne), 4vv, orch, 1913, vs (1913)
9 partsongs: eight pubd (1887–1914), one in MS
c100 solo songs (1890–1916), mostly pubd in 1890s

Instrumental:

Cior Mhor, ov., London, Crystal Palace, 27 Oct 1885
Land of the Mountain and the Flood, ov, op.3, London, Crystal Palace, 5 Nov 1887 (1889)
The Ship o’ the Fiend, ballade, op.5, London, 21 Feb 1888 (1890)
The Dowie Dens o’ Yarrow, ballade, op.6, London, Crystal Palace, 13 Oct 1888 (1891)
Highland Memories, suite, op.30, 1896, London, Crystal Palace, 13 March 1897 (1897), pf arr. by MacCunn also pubd
Five Dances for orchestra
Ballet, 1905
Str qnt, E , 2 vn, va, 2 vc
Three Romantic Pieces, vc, pf (1894); 4 other pieces, vc, pf, separately pubd (1914), 2 of these also arr. vn, pf
Valse Gracieuse, pf; Hornpipe, pf
Six Scottish Dances, op.28, pf (1896)

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Sir George Martin (Lambourn, 11 de setembre de 1844 - London, 23 de febrer de 1916) va ser un organista i compositor anglès.


He studied locally, and later, when he was organist at Lambourn, with Stainer at Oxford. He was appointed private organist to the Duke of Buccleuch at Dalkeith in 1871. At St Paul’s Cathedral he became choirmaster in 1874, deputy organist in 1876 and organist, following Stainer’s resignation, in 1888. His academic distinctions included BMus (Oxford, 1868), FCO (1875), the Lambeth MusD (1883) and DMus (Oxford, 1912). He was appointed teacher of the organ at the Royal College of Music in 1883. Apart from a few secular songs, Martin was a profuse composer of anthems and settings of the services of the Anglican church. His most important composition is a Te Deum setting which was performed on the steps of St Paul’s at Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (1897); it is scored for military band and ‘Great Paul’ (the cathedral’s bell pitched in F); shortly after its performance Martin received a knighthood. He also made organ arrangements and performing editions of sacred vocal music.

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Eduard Francevič Nápravník (Býšť, 24 d'agost de 1839 - Sant Petersburg, 10 de novembre de 1916) va ser un director i compositor txec.


Nápravník nació en Býšť, Bohemia, en 1839. En su infancia, sus estudios musicales fueron limitados ya que era el hijo de un profesor pobre. En 1853, a la edad de 14 años, Nápravník quedó huérfano y comenzó a tocar el órgano en una iglesia local para ganar su sustento. En 1854 entró a la Escuela de Órgano de Praga, donde estudió bajo la tutela de Jan Bedřich Kittl y otros, y trabajo como profesor ayudante. La generosidad de su profesor le permitió continuar sus estudios. En 1861 le ofrecieron en Rusia el puesto de director de la orquesta privada del Prince Yusupov en San Petersburgo. Nápravník se fue organista y director asistente en los teatros Imperiales en 1863, segundo director en 1867, y director jefe, como sucesor de Liadov, en 1869, manteniendo esta posición hasta su muerte. Eduard dirigió las primeras presentaciones de Boris Godunov en 1874, cinco óperas de Pyotr Ilyich Chaikovski incluyendo La Doncella de Orleans, Mazepa, y La Dama de Picas, y cinco de Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, incluyendo Noche de mayo, La Doncella de Nieve y La Noche de Navidad. También dirigió conciertos de la Sociedad Musical rusa. En 1914, después de una carrera productiva al servicio de la ópera rusa, se vio forzado a interrumpir su trabajo por cuestiones de salud.

En noviembre de 1875 Nápravník condujo la primera representación en Rusia del Concierto para Piano No. 1 de Chaikovski, con Gustav Kross como solista (la interpretación de Kross fue descrita por el compositor como "una cacofonía atroz"). Nápravník es también conocido por dirigir la segunda -y altamente persuasiva- interpretación de la sinfonía Pathétique el 6/18 de noviembre de 1893, doce días después de la muerte del compositor.2 El estreno, bajo la batuta del compositor, no fue muy bien recibida, en parte debido a la poca familiaridad de la audiencia y de la orquesta con una obra que tenía tantas novedades en materia de composición, y en parte debido a la dirección de Chaikovski. Bajo la batuta de Nápravník, y a la luz de la muerte reciente de Chaikovski, la pieza fue vista como una obra maestra con un mensaje emocional impactante. Incluía algunas correcciones menores que Chaikovski había hecho después de la premiere, y era así la primera presentación de dicha obra en la forma exacta con que hoy se la conoce. De las cuatro óperas escritas por Nápravník, la más exitosa fue Dubrovsky (1894, puesta en escena en 1895) escrita sobre un libreto ruso de Modest Ilyich Chaikovski basado en una historia de Alexander Pushkin. Murió en Petrogrado (San Petersburgo) en 1916. En mayo de 1917, su familia se mudó al extranjero y finalmente se estableció en Bélgica. Su esposa fue la cantante Olga Shryoder

OBRA:

Vocal:

Stage:
Nizhegorodtsï [The Nizhniy-Novgoroders] (op, 5, P.I. Kalashnikov, after M. Zagoskin: Yury Miloslavsky, ili Russkiye v 1612 godu [Yury Miloslavsky, or The Russians in 1612]), op.15, 27 Dec 1868/8 Jan 1869, vs (Moscow, 1884)
Garol'd [Harold] (dramatic op, 5, P.I. Veynberg, after E. Wildenbruch), op.45, 11/23 Nov 1886, vs (Moscow, 1885)
Don Zhuan [Don Juan] (incid music, A.K. Tolstoy), op.54, 1891, March 1892, suite
Dubrovsky (op, 4, M.I. Tchaikovsky, with J. Paleček, after A.S. Pushkin), op.58, 3/15 Jan 1895, vs (Moscow, 1894)
Francesca da Rimini (op, 4, Ye.P. Ponomaryov, after S. Phillips), op.71, 26 Nov/9 Dec 1902, vs (Moscow, 1902)

Instrumental:

Orch.:
Sym. no.1, before 1861;
Vlasta, ov., op.4, before 1861;
Solemn Ov., op.14, 1866;
Sym. no.2, C, op.17, 1873;
Sym. no.3 ‘The Demon’ (after Lermontov), e, op.18, 1874;
2 folkdance suites, opp.20, 23, 1875–6;
Ballade ‘Kazak’ (A.S. Pushkin), Bar, orch, op.22, 1875;
2 ballades: ‘Voyevoda’ (A. Mickiewicz, trans. Pushkin), Bar/B, orch, ‘Tamara’ (M. Lermontov), Mez, orch, op.26, 1877;
Pf Conc., op.27, 1877;
Fantasia on Russ. themes, vn, orch, op.30, 1878;
Sym. no.4, d, op.32, 1879;
2 Solemn Marches, opp.33, 38, 1880–81;
Fantasia on Russ. themes, pf, orch, op.39, 1881;
Vostok, sym. poem, op.40, 1881;
Funeral March, op.42bis, 1882;
Suite, A, op.49, 1888;
Suite, vn, orch, op.60, 1896;
Deux pièces russes, orch, op.74, 1904

Chbr.:
Str Qt, E, op.16, 1873;
Str Qnt, D, 2 vn, va, 2 vc, op.19, 1874;
Pf Trio, g, op.24, 1876;
Str Qt, A, op.28, 1878;
2 suites, vc, pf, D, op.29, 1878, A, op.36, 1880;
3 pieces, vc, pf, op.37, 1880;
Pf Qt, a, op.42, 1882;
Sonata, vn, pf, G, op.52, 1890;
Pf Trio, d, op.62, 1897;
4 pieces, vn, pf, op.64, 1898;
Str Qt, C, op.65, 1898;
4 pieces, vc, pf, op.67, 1899

Other works:
Messa figurata, org;
Prelude and Fugue, org;
Cantata, C, 1862;
8 sets of songs, opp.21, 25, 31, 35, 44, 56, 59, 68;
other songs, duets, choruses a cappella;
many pf pieces, opp.43, 46–8, 51, 53, 57, 61, 72




James Cutler Dunn Parker (Boston, 2 de juny de 1828 - Brookline, 27 de novembre de 1916) va ser un professor, organista i compositor nord-americà.


A graduate of both the Boston Latin School and Harvard College (1848), he abandoned law in favour of music. From 1851 to 1854 he studied with Hauptmann, Moscheles, Plaidy, Richter and Rietz in Leipzig. When he returned to Boston he began teaching the piano, organ and harmony at the New England Conservatory (1871–97) and was organist at the fashionable Trinity Church (1864–91). His compositions, always thoroughly conservative, included a cantata, St John, written for the 75th anniversary of the Handel and Haydn Society (of which he was organist), and an Easter oratorio, The Life of Man, sung by the society in 1895. He published a Manual of Harmony (Boston, 1855), edited a large anthology of sacred choruses (Boston, 1861), and translated several works including practical manuals and the texts of some of Mendelssohn’s partsongs (1856) and Gade’s Comala (1875).

OBRA:

(selective list) all published in Boston

7 Part Songs (1875);
Redemption Hymn, A, 4vv, vs (1877);
The Blind King (after L. Uhland), ballad, Bar, male vv, orch, vs (1883);
St John (cant.), solo vv, 4vv, orch, vs (1890);
The Life of Man (orat), solo vv, 4vv, orch, vs (1894)

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Silas Pratt (Addison, 4 d'agost de 1846 - Pittsburgh, 30 d'octubre de 1916) va ser un escriptor i compositor nord-americà.


He left school at the age of 12, and while working in three Chicago music stores he saved enough money to spend the years 1868–71 in Germany studying with Franz Bendel, Theodor Kullak and others. A wrist injury caused by over-strenuous practice during his lessons with Kullak prevented his career as a concert pianist. Upon returning to Chicago he became organist of the Church of the Messiah, and with George P. Upton organized the Apollo Club. During his next trip to Germany (1875) Liszt listened intently during a two-hour matinée of Pratt's compositions, giving him encouragement and advice (see Fay), and Pratt conducted his own Centennial Overture at Berlin (4 July 1876). From 1877 to 1888 he again lived in Chicago, where in June 1882 his second opera, Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, was produced in concert form at Central Music Hall and staged the following March at McVicker’s Theatre. His first opera, titled Antonio when begun in 1870 but retitled Lucille, had a three-week run at the Columbia Theater in Chicago during March 1887. In 1888 Pratt moved to New York, where in 1895 he became principal of the West End School of Music. In 1906 he founded the Pratt Institute of Music and Art in Pittsburgh, and was its president until his death. He wrote Lincoln in Story (New York, 1901) and The Pianist’s Mental Velocity (New York, 1905).

OBRA:

Stage:
Antonio, 1870–71, selections perf. Chicago, Farwell Hall, 1874; rev. as Lucille, Chicago, Columbia, 14 March 1887
Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra (op, 4, S.G. Pratt), concert perf., Chicago, Central Music Hall, 15 June 1882, stage, Chicago, McVicker’s, 26 March 1883, vs (Boston, 1882)
The Musical Metempsychosis (musical entertainment), 1888
Ollanta (op, Pratt), unperf.

Other works:
A Columbian Festival Allegory: the Triumph of Columbus, New York, Carnegie Hall, 10 Oct 1892, vs (New York, 1892)
The Inca’s Farewell (cant.), Bar, chorus, vs (Boston, 1891)
?3 syms., incl: no.1, perf. Chicago, 1871;
‘Prodigal Son’, 1875;
Lincoln Sym.
3 sym. poems: Magdalene’s Lament, c1870;
Sandalphon;
A Tragedy of the Deep [on the sinking of the Titanic], c1912
Centennial Ov., perf. Berlin, 4 July 1876
Choruses, songs, incl. The [Civil] War in Song: a Military and Musical Allegory (New York, 1891)
c50 pf pieces

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Frederic Woodman Root (Boston, 13 de juny de 1846 - Chicago, 8 de novembre de 1916) va ser un director, organista, professor i compositor nord-americà.


Root was the son of George Frederick Root, who was known for composing Civil War songs. He studied music under BC Blodgett, William Mason, James Flint and Robert Goldbeck, and studied singing in New York with Carlo Bassini and Luigi Vannuccini from Florence. From 1869 to 1870 he undertook a study tour of Europe. Root composed songs, cantatas, an operetta, and other works, including many for use in singing and piano lessons. He wrote articles and essays for a number of music related publications. Root was the editor of the periodical Song Messenger for several years. Root became a singing teacher, and published several textbooks for singing lessons, including The Pacific Glee Book with James R. Murray, The School of Singing, and Root's New Course in Voice Culture and Singing. Root gave lectures to promote his teaching methods and opinions about music in general. In one of his speeches he characterized African American gospel songs as "developed from the formless and untutored sounds of savage people... being hardly developed to the point at which they might be called music.

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Gervais Bernard Gaston Salvayre (Toulouse, 24 de juny de 1847 - Saint-Ague, 17 de maig de 1916) va ser un compositor francès.

He was a pupil at the Toulouse Conservatory and later the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied with Marmontel (piano), Benoist (organ), Bazin (harmony) and Thomas (composition). He won the premier prix for organ in 1868 and, after five unsuccessful attempts, the Prix de Rome in 1872 with Calypso. His subsequent stay in Rome was quite productive; on his return to Paris he presented an Ouverture symphonique (1874), ballet music for the revival of Grisar’s Les amours du diable (1874) and the symphonie biblique La résurrection (1876, retitled La vallée de Josaphat in 1882). In 1877 he was appointed chorus master of the Opéra Populaire at the Théâtre du Châtelet; in the same year he made an inauspicious operatic début with Le bravo and presented a ballet, Fandango. Later stage works, including Richard III (1883), Egmont (1886) and Dumas’ La dame de Monsoreau (commissioned by the Opéra, 1888), did little to advance his reputation as an opera composer, yet he composed several more dramatic pieces; the only one of these to be staged was Solange (1909), which was hailed as a success by the critic Brétigny. His other compositions include major choral works, such as the Stabat mater (1877) and his last work, the fresque musicale Sainte-Geneviève (performed posthumously at Monte Carlo, 1919), as well as numerous songs and some chamber and piano music. Salvayre was a music critic for Gil Blas for many years. In 1880 he was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur.

OBRA:

Stage:
first performed in Paris unless otherwise stated
Calypso (scène dramatique, V. Roussy), 1872 (1872)
Ballet music for A. Grisar: Les amours du diable, rev. version, Châtelet, 18 Nov 1874
Le bravo (op, 4, E. Blavet), Lyrique, 18 April 1877, vs (1877), excerpts pubd separately
Fandango (ballet, 1), Opéra, 26 Nov 1877, arr. pf (1878)
Richard III (op, 4, Blavet, after W. Shakespeare), St Petersburg, Mariinsky, 9/21 Dec 1883, in It. as Riccardo III; orig. Fr., Nice, 29 Jan 1891 (1883)
Egmont (drame lyrique, 4, A. Wolff and A. Millaud, after J.W. von Goethe), OC, 6 Dec 1886, vs (1886), excerpts pubd separately
La dame de Monsoreau (op, 5, A. Maquet, after A. Dumas père), Opéra, 30 Jan 1888, vs (1888)
Solange (oc, 3, A. Aderer), OC, 10 March 1909 (1909)
?4 other stage works, unpubd

Other works:
Sacred:
La résurrection, symphonie biblique, 1876, retitled La vallée de Josaphat, 1882 (1882);
Stabat mater, solo vv, choir, orch (1877);
2 psalms, solo vv, choir, orch:
Super flumina Babylonis, vs (?n.d.), In exitu Israel, unpubd;
other works

Other vocal:
Sainte-Geneviève (Aderer), fresque musicale, perf. 1919 (1921);
c85 songs

Orch:
Ouverture symphonique, 1874;
other works

Chbr and pf works, some pubd

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Bernhard Scholz (Mainz, 30 de març de 1835 - Munich, 26 de desembre de 1916) va ser un director i compositor alemany.


German conductor and composer, father of Hans Scholz. He first studied music with Heinrich Esser and Ernst Pauer and, after a trip to Paris to learn lithography at his father's request, took further instruction from S.W. Dehn (composition) and Sangiovanni (singing) in Milan. He taught theory at the Royal School of Music in Munich from 1856, then conducted the opera in Zürich and Nuremberg before becoming assistant court Kapellmeister to Marschner in Hanover (1859–65). Subsequently he conducted the concerts of the Società Cherubini in Florence (1865–6) before his activity as a conductor in Berlin, where he directed the Philharmonic Concerts and the Cäcilienverein and taught at Kullak's and Stern's conservatories. From 1871 he directed the concerts of the Breslau Orchestral Society. He succeeded Raff as director of the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt in 1883, a position he retained until his retirement in 1908; he also conducted the choral union founded by F.W. Rühl (from 1884). Scholz was a promoter of the use of art in a patriotic and social context, and in 1897 founded the first workers' Volkschor in Germany. On retirement he went first to Florence and then settled in Munich in 1914. The University of Breslau awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1883. Scholz belonged to the circle of Brahms, Joachim and Clara Schumann, and was among those who signed the famous manifesto of March 1860 against the New German School. He worked assiduously to promote the works of Brahms, whose influence is most evident in his compositions. His late chamber music, which shows a concern with form and finish in detail, represents the highpoint of his output. His String Quartet in G op.46 won the Florentine Quartet Prize in 1877, and his String Quintet in E minor op.47 was awarded a prize by a St Petersburg society the following year. Scholz was also distinguished as an author and compiler of textbooks.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Operas:
Carlo Rosa (komische Oper, 3, B. Scholz), Nuremberg, Staat, 16 Dec 1858
Ziethen'sche Husaren (komische Oper, 3, T. Rehbaum), Breslau, 26 Nov 1869
Morgiane (romantische Oper, 3, Rehbaum), Munich, Hof, 18 Sept 1870
Der Nachtwächter (1, Rehbaum), 1871
Golo (romantische Oper, 4 Scholz), Nuremberg, 4 April 1875
Der Trompeter von Säckingen (komische Oper, 4, Rehbaum), Wiesbaden, 20 Jan 1877
Die vornehmen Wirte (komische Oper, 3, P. Schumacher), Leipzig, 10 March 1883
Gustav Wasa, Kassel, 1886
Ingo (4, Scholz), Frankfurt, 27 Feb 1898
Anno 1757 (3, R. Scholz), Berlin, Kgl, 18 Jan 1903
Mirandolina (3, Rehbaum), Darmstadt, Hof, 1 March 1907

Other works:
Requiem;
Das Lied von der Glocke, solo vv, chorus, orch;
Das Seigesfest; Sylvesterglocken;
Partsongs and solo songs;

Instrumental:

Orch:
2 syms.;
Pf Conc.;
Capriccio, pf, orch;
Capriccio all'ungarese, vc, orch;
Wanderung, suite;
Im Freien;
Iphigenie, ov.

Chbr and pf:
Pf Qnt; Str Qnt;
Pf Qt;
2 str qts;
2 pf trios;
vn and vc sonatas and other works;
Pf Sonata;
many other pf works, incl. preludes and fugues, variations, sonatinas, ländler, waltzes (4 hands) and variations (2 pf)

Literatura:

ed.: S.W. Dehn's Lehre vom Contrapunkt, dem Canon und der Fuge (Leipzig, 1859)
Wohin treiben wir? Betrachtungen eines Musikers (Frankfurt, 1897)
Musikalisches und Persönliches (Berlin and Stuttgart, 1899)
Lehre vom Kontrapunkt und den Nachahmungen (Leipzig, 1904)
Verklungene Weisen: Erinnerungen (Mainz, 1911)

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Andrey Vladimirovich Shcherbachyov (Poltava govt., 18 de gener de 1869 - Kiev, 1 de febrer de 1916) va ser un compositor rus.

Russian composer, second cousin of Vladimir Vladimirovich Shcherbachyov. In 1887 he entered the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied composition with Blumenfeld, Lyadov and Rimsky-Korsakov, and piano with N. Khristianovich, who had been a pupil of Henselt. He composed piano music, including a sonata, and several songs, and his orchestral march op.5 had some success. So too did his ballet Evnika, with a scenario by Count Stenbock-Fermor based on Sienkiewicz's novel Quo vadis? It received its première at the Mariinsky Theatre on 8/20 February 1907 in a production by Fokine and with Anna Pavlova in the principal role. At the outbreak of World War I Shcherbachyov joined the Red Cross as a medical attendant, and died of typhoid on Kiev railway station

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Nikolay Feopemptovich Solov'yov (Petrozavodsk, 27 d'abril de 1846 - Petrograd, 14 de desembre de 1916) va ser un professor i compositor rus.


His father wanted him to make a career in medicine, but he allowed him to enter the St Petersburg Conservatory (1868), where he studied with Zaremba. He completed an overture in 1869, and in 1872, the year of his graduation, he was commissioned to write a cantata to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the birth of Peter the Great. He taught music theory at the conservatory from 1874, and was later professor of composition (1885–1909). From 1905 he was also Director of Music at the Imperial Chapel. He was an enthusiastic member of the St Petersburg Russian Musical Society, of which he was the official representative at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. From 1870 he was a music critic, working for most of the St Petersburg periodicals, including Novoye vremya and the Sankt-Peterburgskiye vedomosti. After the death of Serov, who had intended to write an opera based on Gogol's short story Noch' pered rozhdestvom (‘Christmas Eve’), a competition was set up for the best setting of the libretto, to be entitled Kuznets Vakula (‘Vakula the Smith’). Both Tchaikovsky and Solov'yov submitted an opera; Tchaikovsky duly won in 1875, although some of the judges were known to prefer Solov'yov's composition, which was never professionally performed. Solov'yov never forgave Tchaikovsky and, though he praised Yevgeny Onegin, his criticisms of his music were often hostile. He was similarly critical of Rimsky-Korsakov's music, and their relationship as fellow professors at the conservatory was strained. Although Solov'yov was a conservative critic, he was by no means as reactionary as Vladimir Stasov described; in addition to critical reviews, he also wrote essays, including one on Borodin, for the Brockhaus Lexicon, and was the author of a textbook on harmony. Solov'yov's most important composition is the opera Kordeliya (‘Cordelia’), also known as Mest' (‘Revenge’), which was first performed in 1885. Excerpts from an unfinished opera based on Pushkin's comic poem Domik v Kolomne (‘The Little House in Kolomna’), upon which Stravinsky's Mavra is also based, were published in a St Petersburg periodical in 1899, though the music was probably written earlier. His orchestral fantasy Ėy, ukhnem, performed at the Pan-Russian Exhibition in Moscow (1882), is based on the folksong well known as the ‘Song of the Volga Boatmen’, first published in Balakirev's original collection of folksongs (1866). He was a good if conservative composition teacher, but he died an embittered man, feeling that he had never been given the chance to flourish as a composer.

OBRA:

Kuznets Vakula [Vakula the Smith] (op, Ya. Polonsky, after Gogol: Noch' pered rozhdestvom [Christmas Eve]), 1874–5, amateur perf., St Petersburg, 1880, as Vakula Kuznets
Domik v Kolomne [The Little House in Kolomna] (op, after A. Pushkin), ?early 1880s (excerpts, St Petersburg, 1899)
Kordeliya (op, P. Bronnikov after V. Sardov: La haine), St Petersburg, 1885, rev. 1898 as Mest' [Revenge]

Orch:
Rusý i Mongolï, sym. picture, 1870;
Ėy, ukhnem, orch fantasy, 1882

Other works:
Samson, cant., 1877;
other cants.;
chbr music;
pf pieces;
songs

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Fritz Steinbach (Grünsfeld, 17 de juny de 1855 - Munich, 13 d'agost de 1916) va ser un director i compositor alemany.


German conductor, brother of Fritz Steinbach. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1867–9) and continued his studies (until 1871) in Karlsruhe with Hermann Levi, who trained him as a conductor. He was appointed assistant Kapellmeister in Mannheim (1871–4) and was then briefly principal Kapellmeister in Hamburg. He was Hofkapellmeister in Darmstadt (1874–7) and, finally, civic Kapellmeister in Mainz (1877–1909). At Mainz he was also director of the Stadttheater from 1899 to 1903. He retired in 1910. Steinbach was particularly famous as a conductor of Wagner. Mainz became an outstanding centre for performances of Wagner's operas and Steinbach gave the first public performance (1877) of the Siegfried Idyll there. He conducted Tristan und Isolde and Siegfried at Covent Garden in 1893. Steinbach composed lieder, chamber music, symphonic poems and overtures.

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Marie Wieck (Leipzig, 17 de gener de 1832 - Dresden, 2 de novembre de 1916) va ser una pianista, professora i compositora alemanya.


Pianist and teacher, daughter of (1) Friedrich Wieck. She learned the piano from her father. After her first public appearances in 1843–4, she began studying the piano intensively and undertook further concert tours in Germany and elsewhere in Europe. In 1857 she was appointed court and chamber virtuoso to Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern. She lived chiefly in Dresden, where she gave piano lessons, often with her father, and held soirées. After Friedrich Wieck's death she continued teaching by his method and published several of his educational works, including Pianoforte Studien von Friedrich Wieck (Leipzig, c1875) and Friedrich Wiecks Singübungen (Leipzig, c1877). She also composed short piano pieces, a fantasy on Scandinavian folksongs for piano and cello or viola, and several songs.

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Charles Zimmermann (Newport, 22 de juliol de 1862 - Annapolis, 16 de gener de 1916) va ser un compositor nord-americà.


Was an American composer of marches and popular music. A graduate of the Peabody Conservatory of Music in Baltimore, he was appointed bandmaster at the United States Naval Academy in 1887 at the age of 26. He served as the Academy's bandmaster until his death from a brain hemorrhage in 1916. He is buried at the Naval Academy cemetery. Zimmermann composed his most famous march, "Anchors Aweigh", in 1906 when he was a Lieutenant in the United States Navy. The lyrics were written by Alfred Hart Miles, a midshipman. The march was intended from the beginning to serve as a rousing tune for football games. The familiar strain is actually the trio (third movement) of the larger work. Zimmermann also composed numerous songs for the 1902 stage play The Wizard of Oz.

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