divendres, 3 de juny de 2016

DE JERUSALEM, Ignacio (1707-1769) - Al Combate (c.1760)

Luis Paret y Alcázar - Carlos III comiendo ante su corte (c.1775)
Obra de Luis Paret y Alcázar (1746-1799), pintor espanyol (1)


- Recordatori d'Ignacio de Jerusalem -
En el dia de la celebració del seu 309è aniversari de naixement



Parlem de Pintura...

Luis Paret y Alcázar (Madrid, 11 de febrer de 1746 - Madrid, 14 de febrer de 1799) va ser un pintor espanyol. Va cursar estudis des dels 10 anys a la Real Acadèmia de Belles Arts de San Fernando. Va viatjar a Roma entre els anys 1763 i 1766 gràcies a una beca de Lluís Antoni d'Espanya, germà menor del rei Carles III d'Espanya. A la seva tornada a Espanya, es va incorporar al taller de Charles de la Traverse a Madrid. El 1775, no obstant i fruit de certes desavinences, va viatjar obligat a Puerto Rico on va deixar empremta en altres pintors, entre ells, José Campeche. El 1778 va tornar a Espanya si bé es va mantenir allunyat de la cor madrilenya i es va instal·lar a Bilbao. El 1788 va rebre autorització per tornar a la cort a Madrid on va ingressar novament a la Reial Acadèmia de Belles Arts, curiosament al mateix temps que Francisco Goya. En general, el seu estil va ser més barroc que neoclàssic i la seva temàtica va ser variada, des de paisatges, escenes de gènere i natures mortes fins a retrats. Va morir a Madrid el febrer de 1799.




Parlem de Música...

Ignacio de Jerusalem y Stella (Lecce, 3 de juny de 1707 - Ciudad de México, 15 de desembre de 1769) va ser un violinista i compositor italià. Va iniciar la seva activitat musical a Itàlia com a violinista, també va ser músic del Coliseu de Cadis i a Nova Espanya va arribar a ser mestre de capella de la Catedral de la Asunción de María de Mèxic. Els seus contemporanis el coneixien com el "miracle musical" perquè el seu talent i capacitats musicals rivalitzaven amb el mateix mestre de capella de Madrid. El 1732 va abandonar Itàlia i es va instal·lar a Cadis on va treballar en el Coliseu d'aquella ciutat. El 1742 José Cárdenas, del Reial Tribunal de Comptes, el va contractar a Espanya juntament amb altres músics i cantants destinats a complir els seus serveis a Mèxic. Va arribar a la capital de Nova Espanya el 1742 per a treballar com a violinista i director musical del Coliseu de Mèxic. A partir del 1746 va compondre obres per a la Catedral de Mèxic i el 1749 va ser ascendit a mestre de capella interí. L'any següent va rebre el nomenament de mestre titular, càrrec que va exercir la resta de la seva vida. Com a mestre de capella, Ignacio de Jerusalem va ser precedit per Domingo Dutra i Andrade (1741-1750) i succeït per Mateo Tollis della Rocca (1769-1780). Allà va compondre el corpus de la seva obra, format per centenars de composicions de caràcter religiós principalment. Va ser extraordinàriament popular al seu temps a tot centre Amèrica. Va morir a Ciudad de México el desembre de 1769.

OBRA:

all for voices and orchestra; all manuscripts in Mexico City Cathedral unless otherwise stated
latin sacred

Vocal religiosa:

7 masses:
in D, 4vv, 1763;
in D, 8vv, US-SBm, ed. C.H. Russell (Los Osos, CA, 1993);
in F, 4vv, 1768, Mexico City Cathedral and US-SBm;
in F, 8vv, Ky and Gl ed. C.H. Russell (Los Osos, CA, 1996);
in G, 4vv, 1767;
in G, 8vv, Mexico City Cathedral and US-SBm; 8vv

2 requiem:
in a, 8vv, 1760;
in E

Vespers pss:
Beatus vir (F), 2vv;
Beatus vir (C), 8vv;
Confitebor tibi Domine (g);
Credidi (F), 8vv;
Dilexi quoniam exaudit Dominus (G);
Dixit Dominus (B ), 2vv;
Dixit Dominus (B ), 8vv;
Dixit Dominus (D), 8vv;
Dixit Dominus (d), 8vv;
Dixit Dominus (F), 2vv;
Dixit Dominus (F);
Dixit Dominus (G), 4vv;
Dixit Dominus (G), 8vv;
Laetatus sum (a), 8vv;
Laetatus sum (B ), 8vv, ?1758;
Laetatus sum (E );
Laetatus sum, 4vv, 1764;
Lauda Jerusalem (F), 8vv;
Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (B ), 1v;
Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (B ), 8vv;
Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (d), 8vv;
Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (F);
Laudate Dominum omnes gentes (G), 4vv;
Levavi oculos meos (G);
Memorabilia, 4vv, 1764

Vespers hymns and canticles:
Ave maris stella (F), 8vv;
Ave maris stella (d), 8vv;
Decora lux (G), 5vv;
Defensor alme (D), 8vv;
Exultet orbis (D), 2vv;
Jesu corona (D);
Mag (a), 8vv;
Mag (B ), 2vv;
Mag (C), 2vv;
Mag (E );
Mag (F), 8vv (3 settings);
Pange lingua (g), 8vv;
Placare Christe (F), 8vv;
Te Joseph (G), 8vv;
Ut queant laxis (G);
Veni creator spiritus (G), 8vv

Motets, ants etc.:
Ascendit Christus (D), 8vv;
Ascendit Christus (E), 1v;
Egregiae martyr Philipe;
Non fecit tatiter, 8vv;
Non turbetur cor vesinum;
O voz omnes, 8vv;
Pauperum primo genita, 4vv;
Psalmo de nona primera miravilia, 8vv;
Qui vult venire post me, 4vv (= Plantas frondosas de aqueste jardín, see ‘Villancicos’);
Regem cui omnia vivunt, 4vv;
Salve regina (C), 1v;
Salve regina (D), 8vv;
Stabat mater, 8vv;
Sub tuum praesidium, 8vv;
Tota pulcra es, 8vv;
Veni Sancte Spiritus, 8vv;
Veni sponsa Christi, 8vv;
Victimae paschali, 8vv

11 Matins cycles of responsories, invitatories and hymns, 1–8vv: for Christmas;
Assumption; St Peter;
Our Lady of the Conception;
feast day of St Joseph;
patronage of St Joseph;
Our Lady of the Pillar;
Our Lady of Guadalupe (2 cycles, 1 ed. C.H. Russell, Los Osos, CA, 1997);
St Ildefonso and the Pontifical Confessors;
St Philip Neri and the Common Confessors

Other works:
Office of the Dead;
2 Te Deum;
5 Lamentations;
6 Miserere

Villancicos:
A de la dulce métrica armonía, 4vv;
A de los cielos, 8vv;
Admirado el orbe, 8vv;
A gozar el sumo bien, 4vv;
Aguila caudalosa, 4vv;
A la esposa es de Dios, 4vv;
A la milagrosa escuela, 4vv, 1765;
Al arma contra Luzes, 1v;
A la tierra venid, 4vv;
Al cielo subiendo, 1v;
Alerta las vozes, 4vv;
Al mirar los rayos, 4vv;
Al penetran la hermosura, 8vv;
Al que en solio de rayos, 4vv;
Amante peregrino, 3vv;
Animase, alientese, 8vv;
Aplaudan alegres, 4vv;
Arca perfectísima, 1v;
Arcano sagrado, 4vv;
Armoniosos metros, 4vv;
A tan gran afector, 2vv;
A tan regia vista, 4vv;
A tu feliz natalicio, 1v;
A velas llamas, 8vv;
Ay mi bien, 8vv;
Bendito sea el Señor, 4vv;
Celestes armonias terrestres consonancias alarma, 8vv;
Cielo, que alto mirais, 2vv, E-CU;
Clarines sonad;
Con añores ecos nuestro pecho amante celebra, 8vv, 1766;
Con canoros secos
De amor el incendio, 1v;
De aquel muro en las esfera, 2vv;
Del diciembre rizado, 1v;
De noche ha nacido, 4vv;
De su fé las glorias, 2vv;
Devoto el coro con alegría llama a María, 4vv;
Dolencia padre, 2vv;
Dulce incendio, 2vv;
El aire, la tierra, 1v;
El amor y el afecto, 8vv;
El celeste gozo, 4vv;
El clarín de la fama, 8vv;
Ella feliz Bagel, 2vv;
El tesoro sagrado, 4vv;
El viento ayrado, 1v;
En este triste valle, 4vv;
En tiempo, sin tiempo, 4vv;
En una ligera nave, 4vv;
Esta noche las zágalas, 8vv;
Este alto sacramento, 1v;
Gloria lo ofrece, 8vv;
Gorgeos trinando, 2vv;
La angélica turba, 8vv;
La esfera triumphante rompa la luz, 4vv;
La gloria más bella, 2vv;
La tierra se alegra, 4vv;
Libre de la pena, 2vv;
Los rayos ardientes, 4vv;
Manda Dios que observen, 4vv
Octavo kalendas, 1v;
Ola, ola, pastorcillos, 8vv;
O Niño si tiritas, 2vv;
O sacra luziente antorcha;
País de Noél, 5vv;
Pedro amado, 2vv;
Plantas frondosas de aqueste jardín, 4vv (= Qui vult venire post me, see ‘Latin sacred’);
Propitia estrella, 1v;
Protegido de una estrella, 4vv;
Pues el Asturiano alegre, 4vv;
Que admiráis mortales, 4vv;
Que rayos (= Si aleve fortuna), 1v;
Que tempestad amenaza, 8vv;
Remedio lucido, 4vv;
Rendido qual mariposa, 8vv;
Rompa la esfera, 8vv;
Si admito tu fineza, 2vv;
Si aleve fortuna (= Que rayos);
Si el alma de Dios embelleza, 4vv;
Sus glorias cantando, 4vv;
Todos pueden alegar, 1v;
Toquen al arma, 4vv;
Varones ilustres, 1v;
Vierte blandamente, 1v;
Virgen pura, arca sagrada, 2vv;
Virgen pura, arca sagrada, 4vv;
Y vive amor en mí, 1v

Other spanish sacred:
Loas:
A el eco de la fama dispertando, 4vv;
Con respectuosos esmeros, 4vv;
En hora dichosa la laguna admire coronada, 4vv;
Si es gloria del orbe, 4vv

Pastorelas:
A que esperáis cherubas;
Para donde caminas, 5vv, Morelia, Conservatorio de las Rosas;
Pastorela, 8vv

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Ignacio de Jerusalem (1707-1769) In english: Ignacio de Jerusalem (1707-1769) - Altres: Ignacio de Jerusalem (1707-1769) 



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

Perhaps the most exciting contribution of this recording is the modern-day release of Jerusalem’s ode, Al Combate. It is one of only a handful of substantial secular works written in New Spain during the eighteenth century, and almost certainly the most extensive to survive. Al Combate celebrates the University of Mexico’s allegiance to the newly crowned King Charles III of Spain (1716-1788), the Bourbon monarch who reigned from 1759 until his death, having served prior as the Spanish Viceroy of Naples. Although not a music lover, Charles III promoted science, medicine, university education and economic development in a time of decreasing inluence of the church, and thus he exempliies the reform minded Enlightenment monarch. Al Combate takes the form of a cantata, namely a succession of self-contained movements that includes choruses, recitatives, and arias. Scored for solo singers, strings, trumpets, horns, timpani and choir, the work opens with a substantial Italian overture congruent in structure to the Symphony in G major. In fact, some of the igures in the second movement are reminiscent of that symphony. Thereafter, Jerusalem frames two pairs of recitatives and arias – one for bass solo and the other for alto solo – between two celebratory choruses. Several years after composing this occasional work, Jerusalem rewrote the two arias as Latin responsories for the Virgin of Guadalupe. One of these contrafacta, the responsory Quae est ista, has been recorded by Chanticleer on the disc Matins for the Virgin of Guadalupe, 1764. It corresponds musically to the aria “Propicia estrella” in Al combate. The text of Al combate shows the erudition of New Spanish literature in this period. 

The complex poem, written in a literary style nearly a century out of date in 1760, uses classical mythology to show the academic elite of the University of Mexico – allegorized as the “Mexican Minerva” of the inal chorus – swearing allegiance to Charles III by composing a poem in the style of, and with literary references to, works by Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (1651-1695). Sor Juana, known as the “tenth muse,” was the single most important colonial Latin American literary igure. The text also picks up on Charles’s genealogy as his father, King Philip V of Spain (who listened to Farinelli sing Italian opera arias nightly) was born in France, and his mother, Elisabeth Farnese, was Italian. The pure galant style of the music contrasts sharply with the text, which is deliberately archaic. The underlying message conveys that the university is up to date, yet proud of its tradition of literary erudition. It seems that these poems had been presented publicly at a poetry competition, the “amorosa contienda” (“loving competition”), as part of a larger series of festivities in honor of Charles III in 1760. The “combat” of the title is more akin to the competitiveness of a poetry “slam” today than to armed combat. The irony of cheering a peaceful monarchical succession using language indicative of war is just the tip of the iceberg of the work’s poetic richness. The text was printed independently of the music in a Mexico City publication that commemorated the occasion. Listeners might be interested in viewing the original manuscript of Al combate on the website of the Seminario de Música en la Nueva España y el México Independiente (www.musicat.unam.mx), an international group based in Mexico City that is actively cataloging, studying, and publishing scholarship about New Spanish repertoire such as Al combate. Images of every page of Jerusalem’s manuscript are accessible there under call number A0096.

Booklet notes

Gaudiu i compartiu! 



Informació addicional... 

4 comentaris:

  1. Un administrador del blog ha eliminat aquest comentari.

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  2. Amigo Pau, siempre gracias por este maravilloso post. Mucho tiempo buscaba esta joya, hasta que encontré esta gran sorpresa!!!! Nuevamente mis agradecimientos por tu excelente blog de obras maestras y rarezas!!!
    Fuerte abrazo feliz finde!!!

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    Respostes
    1. Un placer como siempre! Una gran sorpresa ya lo puedes decir! De Jerusalem fué un grandisimo compositor, no tengo la menor duda!

      Abrazo!!
      Pau

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  3. Gracias Pau, no conozco las maravillas que haces en tu blog, felicitaciones!!!
    Abrazossss
    Sofia L.

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