dimecres, 6 d’abril de 2016

KUHNAU, Johann (1660-1722) - German Cantatas (c.1710)

Attributed to Jean Tassel - Rest on the Flight into Egypt
Obra de Jean Tassel (1608-1667), pintor francès (1)



- Recordatori de Johann Kuhnau -
En el dia de la celebració del seu 356è aniversari de naixement



Parlem de Pintura...

Jean Tassel (Langres, c.1608 - Langres, 6 d’abril de 1667) va ser un pintor francès. Va estudiar a Itàlia, on va rebre la influència dels mestres italians, i molt especialment de l'obra de Caravaggio. Al tornar a França, va treballar a Dijon, Troyes i Langres, on es troben molts dels seus quadres, als quals recentment s'ha afegit una gran part de l’obra atribuïda fins ara al seu pare, Richard Tassel. D’entre la seva obra van destacar Caterina de Montholon (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon), L’arbre de Jessè (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Troyes) i Els serradors (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Estrasburg). Va morir a Langres l’abril de 1667.

Font: En català: Jean Tassel (1608-1667) En castellano: Jean Tassel (1608-1667) In english: No disponible - Altres: Jean Tassel (1608-1667)



Parlem de Música...

Johann Kuhnau (Geising, 6 d'abril de 1660 - Leipzig, 5 de juny de 1722) va ser un organista i compositor alemany. De ben petit va mostrar un gran talent vocal i un profund interès musical. El 1669 va ser matriculat a la Kreuzschule de Dresden, on va assolir la condició de Rathsdiscantist, i va obtenir instrucció regular en música. En canviar la veu va haver de treballar més dur i a més de la seva música va aprendre italià. La plaga de 1680 el va obligar a tornar a casa però ben aviat es va decantar per viatjar a Zittau on va ser professor abans de rebre l'encàrrec de Kantor de la ciutat. El 1682 va viatjar a Leipzig, ciutat on va viure la resta de la seva vida. Allà va succeir, el 1684, a Kühnel com a organista de l’església de Sant Tomàs on també va treballar com a professor amb alumnes com Johann David Heinichen i Christoph Graupner. El 1688 va fundar el 'Collegium Musicum' de la ciutat. Paral·lelament, es va graduar en Jurisprudència a la Universitat de Leipzig i el 1700 es va convertir en director musical de la mateixa universitat i d’un parell d’esglésies de la ciutat. El 1701 va ser nomenat Kantor, el càrrec més important de Leipzig. A banda de la seva labor musical, també va escriure tractats i traduccions diverses així com obra poètica de temàtica profana i satírica. Com a compositor, van destacar les nombroses partitures religioses així com obra secular la majoria de la qual es va perdre posteriorment. Kuhnau va morir a Leipzig el juny de 1722 sent Johann Sebastian Bach el seu substitut com a Kantor de la ciutat.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

Stage:
Orpheus, opera, lost (mentioned in Der musicalische Quack-Salber) [probably for Weissenfels]
Singspiel, lost (according to Scheibe)
Music for school plays by C. Weise, lost
Dramma per musica, lost [for welcome of Elector-Prince Johann Georg, Michaelmas 1683]

Vocal religiosa:

German:
Ach dass Hülfe aus Zion käme (I Christmas), 25 Dec 1709, D-LEm (text only);
Ach Herr, wie sind meiner Feinde so viel, 2vv, 2 clarinos, trbn, 2 vn, bc, Bsb;
Also hat Gott die Welt geliebet (Whit Monday), 25 May 1711, LEm (text only);
Also werden die letzten die ersten sein (Septuagesima), 16 Feb 1710, LEm (text only);
Christ lag in Todesbanden, 4vv, 2 vn, 2 va, vle, 2 cornetts (ad lib), org, 1693 or earlier, Bsb, ed. H. Fishback (Glen Rock, NJ, n.d.);
Daran erkennen wir, dass wir in ihm verbleiben (Whit Sunday), 5vv, 2 ob, bn, 2 clarinos, timp, 2 vn, 2 va, org, Bsb;
Das Alte ist vergangen, 4vv, 2 clarinos, bn, timp, 2 vn, va, bc, B-Bc;
Der Herr, dein Gott wird selber mit dir wandeln (II Easter), 6 April 1711, D-LEm (text only);
Dies ist der Tag der heiligen Dreyfaltigkeit (Trinity Sunday), 31 May 1711, LEm (text only);
Du Arzt in Israel (Trinity XVII), Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only); Du weisst, mein Gott, dass ich dich liebe, III Christmas, 27 Dec 1710, LEm (text only);
Du wirst, mein Heyland, aufgenommen (Ascension), 14 May 1711, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only)
Ende gut und alles gut (Trinity XXVII), date unknown, LUC;
Erschrick mein Hertz vor dir (Trinity XIV), 1v, chorus 4vv, 2 vn, violetta, org, before 1712, LEm;
Es steh Gott auf (Easter), 5vv, chorus 5vv, 2 clarinos, tamburi, 3 trbn, 2 va, bc, 1703, Dl (doubtful);
Fleuch, mein Freund, und sei gleich einem Reh (Sunday after New Year), 5 Jan 1710, LEm (text only);
Flöss mir von deinen süssen Lehren (Epiphany I), 11 Jan 1711, LEm (text only);
Fürchtet euch nicht für denen, die den Leib tödten (II Christmas), 26 Dec 1709, LEm (text only);
Für uns ein Mensch gebohren (III Christmas), 27 Dec 1720, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only);
Gott der Vater, Jesus Christus, der Heil'ge Geist wohn uns bey, 4vv, ob (tromba da tirarsi), 2 vn, va, bc, Bsb;
Gott sei mir gnädig (Quinquagesima), 4vv, chorus 4vv, 2 vn, 2 va, bn, bc, 22 Feb 1705, Dl, ed. in DDT, lviii–lix (1918/R);
Himmel, bricht der Abgrund auf? (pts.i–iii) (I–III Easter), 1717, Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only)
Ich freue mich im Herrn (Epiphany II), 4vv, 2 vn, va, bc, 17 Jan 1712, Dl, ed. in DDT, lviii–lix (1918/R);
Ich habe Lust abzuscheiden (Purification), 4vv, chorus 4vv, ob, bn, 2 vn, va, vc, bc, lost (doubtful), ed. in Organum, i/14 (Leipzig, 1928);
Ich hebe meine Augen auff, 1v, 2 vn, vle, org, LEm (text only) (also attrib. Telemann);
Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu, 4vv (St Matthew), 10 insts, lost;
Ich unterrede mich mit deinem Hertzen (III Easter) 1711, LEm (text only);
Ich will aufstehen und in der Stadt umhergehen (Epiphany I), 12 Jan 1710, LEm (text only);
Ich will dich erhöhen, mein Gott (Circumcision), 1 Jan 1711, LEm (text only);
Ihr Himmel jubilirt von oben (Ascension), 5vv, 2 fl, 3 clarinos, 2 vn, va, bc, 6 May 1717, LEm;
Ist denn keine Salbe in Gilead? (Epiphany III), 26 Jan 1710, LEm (text only); Jesu, hier ist deine Stadt (Trinity XIX), Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only)
Kommt her und sehet an die Werke des Herrn (Sunday after Christmas), 28 Dec 1710, LEm (text only);
Kündlich gross ist das gottseelige. Geheimnis (New Year), 1 Jan 1721, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only);
Leite mich in Liebesseilen (Trinity XVIII), Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only);
Lobe den Herrn meine Seele (Trinity VII), 2vv, vn, ob, org, 19 July 1722, Dl;
Lobe den Herrn meine Seele, 5vv, 2 cornetts, 3 trbn, bn, 2 vn, 2 va, bc, Bsb;
Lobet, ihr Himmel, den Herrn (Ascension), 4vv, 2 ob, 2 clarinos, timp, 2 vn, 2 va, org, Bsb;
Mache dich auff, werde Licht (Epiphany), 6 Jan 1710, LEm (text only);
Mein Alter kommt, ich kann nicht sterben, 5vv, 2 vn, 2 va, bn, bc, 1696, Dl;
Michael, wer ist wie Gott? (St Michael), Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only);
Muss nicht der Mensch auf dieser Erden, 1v, clarino, bn, vn, org, 1715, LUC
Nicht nur allein am frohen Morgen (II Christmas), 4vv, 2 clarinos, 2 hn, timp, 2 vn, va, bc, 26 Dec 1718, LEm;
O heilige Zeit, wo Himmel, Erd und Lufft, 2vv, 2 ob, 2 vn, va, bc, LEm (doubtful);
O heilige Zeit, wo Himmel, Erd und Luft, 4vv, 2 vn, 2 va, bc, Bsb;
O mehr als englisches Gesichte (I Christmas), 25 Dec 1710, LEm (text only);
O süssester Jesu, o freundliches Kind (Epiphany I), Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only);
Passion according to St Mark (Good Friday), 11 April 1721, lost, formerly RUS-KA (inc.);
Redet unter einander von Psalmen und Lobgesängen (New Year), 1 Jan 1721, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only);
Sammle dir, getreue Seele (I Easter), 5 April 1711, D-LEm (text only);
Sanffter Wind, beliebtes Brausen (Whit Sunday), 24 May 1711, LEm (text only);
Schmücket das Fest mit Meyen, 4vv, 2 rec, 4 vn, violetta, bc, Bsb; Seyd willkommen, frohe Stunden (Sunday after New Year), 5 Jan 1721, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only)
Siehe da, ich lege einen auserwehlten, köstlichen Edelstein (Sunday after Christmas), 29 Dec 1709, LEm (text only);
Siehe, es kommt ein Tag, der brennen soll (Epiphany V), 9 Feb 1710, LEm (text only);
Siehe, ich komme, im Buch ist von mir geschrieben (Quinquagesima), 2 March 1710, LEm (text only);
Siehe, ich will meinen Engel senden (Purification), 2 Feb 1710, LEm (text only);
Siehe, ich will mich meiner Heerde selbst annehmen (Whit Tuesday), 26 May 1711, LEm (text only);
Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied, 4vv, 2 tpt, bn, 2 vn, va, org, Bsb;
Thue mir auff, liebe Freundin (1st Sunday in Advent), 1 Dec 1709, LEm (text only);
Träum ich nicht, so spricht mein Jesus (Sunday after New Year), 4 Jan 1711, LEm (text only);
Um deines Tempels Willen zu Jerusalem (Epiphany), 6 Jan 1711, LEm (text only);
Und ist ein Kind geboren (I Christmas), 25 Dec 1720, Bibliothek des Vereins für die Geschichte Leipzigs (text only);
Und ob die Feinde Tag und Nacht (Trinity XXIII), 1v, vn, org, LEm
Vermischte Traurigkeit und Freude (Easter III), 26 April 1711, LEm (text only);
Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her, 4vv, 2 clarinos, timp, 2 vn, va, bc, LEm;
Was betrübst du dich meine Seele (Epiphany I), 12 Jan 1710, LEm (text only);
Weicht ihr Sorgen aus dem Hertzen (Trinity VII/XV), 1v, 2 vn, 2 va, org, LUC;
Welt adieu, ich bin dein müde (Trinity XXIV), 5vv, fl, ob, 2 hn, 2 vn, 2 va, bc, LEm (inc.);
Wenn ihr fröhlich seid an euren Festen (Easter), 5vv, chorus 5vv, 2 clarinos, ‘principale’, trbn, tamburi, bn, 2 vn, 2 va, org, 1716, Dl, ed. in DDT, lviii–lix (1918/R);
Wer Ohren hat zu hören (Sexagesima), 23 Feb 1710, LEm (text only);
Wie gross ist deine Güte, Gott (Easter IV), 3 May 1711, LEm (text only);
Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern, 5vv, 2 vn, 2 va, 2 hn, bc, Bsb, ed. in DDT, lviii–lix (1918/R);
Wiltu, mein Gott, diss Hertz verlassen (II Christmas), 26 Dec 1710, LEm (text only);
Zeuch mich nach dir, so laufen wir (III Christmas), 27 Dec 1709, LEm (text only)

Latin:
Missa, 4vv, lost, formerly D-MÜG
Missa, lost, formerly MY
Magnificat, 5vv, 2 ob, 3 clarinos, timp, 2 vn, 2 va, bc, Bsb
Bone Jesu, chare Jesu (13th Sunday after Trinity), 1v, 2 vn, bc, 6 Aug 1690, Dl;
In dulci jubilo (Sunday after Christmas), 29 Dec 1720, LEm (text only);
In te Domine speravi (23rd Sunday after Trinity), 1v, 2 vn, 2 va, bn, bc, Dl;
Laudate pueri, 1v, 2 vn, trbn (va da gamba/vc), bc, Bsb;
Spirate clementes, 3vv, 2 vn, bc, Bsb;
Tristis est anima mea, 5vv, Bsb

Other:
German; some edited in Rimbach
Ach Gott, wie lästu mich erstarren, aria, 5vv, bc, D-ZI [for burial of Rektor Titius, Zittau, 19 May 1681]; Der Herr erhöre dich in der Not, with Verleih uns Frieden, 2 choirs, lost [for election of Zittau town council, 1682];
Der Herr hat Zion erwehlet, LEm (text only) [for Leipzig University jubilee, 4 Dec 1709];
Der Herr ist Gott, der uns erleuchtet, lost [for dedication of new altar in Leipzig Thomaskirche, 25 Dec 1721];
Deutsches Te Deum, 3 choirs, tpts, timp, lost (probably by Kuhnau) [for Reformation Jubilee, 1717];
Dies ist der Tag, den der Herr gemacht hat, LEm (text only) [for Leipzig University jubilee, 4 Dec 1709];
Erschallt, Gott zu loben, lost [for investiture of Superintendent Deyling, Leipzig Nikolaikirche, 13 Aug 1721];
Herr, der Feinde sind zu viel, Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive (text only) [for Leipzig Evangelische Kirche jubilee, 2 Nov 1717];
Tobet, ihr Pforten der Hölle, LEm (text only) [for Leipzig Evangelische Kirche jubilee, 1717];
Trauerkantate, lost [on the death of Rektor Titius, 18 April 1714];
Zion auf ermuntre dich, Leipzig Nikolaikirche Archive [text only) (for Leipzig Evangelische Kirche jubilee, 1717]

Latin
Confitebor tibi, lost [for ded. of new anatomical theatre, 10 Sept 1704];
Ecce quam bonum et iucundum, lost (probably by Kuhnau) [for performance before the oration of Prof. B. Mencke, 6 Aug 1707];
Hodie collaetantur coeli cives (Christmas Day), 25 Dec 1709, LEm (text only) [for performance after the oration];
I, Fama, pennas indice praepetes, ode, lost [for performance after the oration of Prof. B. Mencke, 6 Aug 1707];
Non mortui laudabunt te, lost [for performance after the oration at the dedication of new anatomical theatre, 10 Sept 1704];
Oda secularis, tibi litamus, lost (probably by Kuhnau) [for Leipzig University jubilee, 4 Dec 1709];
Ode, 3 choirs, lost (probably by Kuhnau) [for wedding celebration of Elector-Prince Friedrich August and Maria Josepha of Austria, 8 Sept 1719];
Salve, theatrum, splendida funerum, ode, lost [for dedication of new anatomical theatre, 10 Sept 1704];
Summe terrarum moderator, ode, lost [for dedication of new anatomical theatre, 10 Sept 1704];
Verbum caro factum est (Christmas Day), 25 Dec 1709, LEm (text only) [for performance before the oration]

Instrumental:

Keyboard:
Neuer Clavier-Übung, erster Theil (7 suites) (Leipzig, 1689); ed. in DDT, iv (1901/R)
Neuer Clavier-Übung, anderer Theil (7 suites, 1 sonata) (Leipzig, 1692); ed. in DDT, iv (1901/R)
Frische Clavier Früchte (7 sonatas) (Leipzig, 1696); ed. in DDT, iv (1901/R)
Musicalische Vorstellung einiger biblischer Historien (6 programme sonatas) (Leipzig, 1700/R); ed. in DDT, iv (1901/R)
Prelude, G, US-NH;
Praeludium alla breve, NH;
Fugue, C, NH (orig. version of 2nd movt, Sonata, B , 1692);
Fugue, G, D-MY, tablature book, 1750;
Toccata, Bsb: ed. in Organum, iv/19 (Leipzig, n.d.)

Literatura:

Divini numinis assistentia, illustrisque jure consultorum in florentissima academia Lipsiensi (Leipzig, 1688)
Der musicalische Quack-Salber, novel (Dresden,1700); ed. K. Benndorf (Berlin, 1900/R)
Letter, 8 Dec 1717, in J. Mattheson: Critica musica, ii (Hamburg, 1725/R) [on solmization etc.]
Fundamenta compositionis, 1703, D-Bsb
Tractatus de tetrachordo seu musica antiqua ac hodierna, lost
De triade harmonica, lost 

Font: En català: Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722) En castellano: Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722) In english: Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722) - Altres: Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722)



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

Kuhnau's surviving music belongs to two categories: keyboard music, nearly all published by 1700, and sacred music, mostly cantatas and all of it unpublished. His secular vocal works are all lost. His reputation as a composer rests almost entirely on the four printed sets of keyboard pieces, especially the last of them, the Biblische Historien. This consists of six multi-movement ‘sonatas’, each prefaced by a prose description of a particular incident from the Old Testament illustrated in the music: The Fight between David and Goliath; Saul cured by David through Music; Jacob's Wedding; Hezekiah, Sick unto Death and Restored to Health; Gideon, Saviour of Israel; Jacob's Death and Burial. Kuhnau emphasized in a learned and valuable preface that this type of programme music was not new, and he referred to models by Froberger and ‘other excellent authors’. His purpose was to demonstrate, among other things, how keyboard music, without the benefit of a poetic text, could capture the emotional states emanating from an action or the description of a character. The various sections of each sonata bear Italian subtitles as clues to the particular emotional state or action being described by the music. For example, the second sonata begins with ‘The sadness and the fury of the king’, which is followed first by ‘The calming song from David's harp’ and finally by ‘The tranquil and contented soul of Saul’. As with other keyboard works by Kuhnau, these sonatas are quite simple both melodically and, on the whole, harmonically. The rather naive programmatic details are, however, sustained by a rich variety of rhythms and especially textures: massive chords, often in both hands, motivic interplay in the manner of the style brisé, poignant dissonances, rapid toccata-like passages, and fugal sections. 

Each of the two parts of the Neue Clavier-Übung contains seven suites, those in the first in major keys, those in the second in minor keys. The suites have the same basic series of movements. They usually begin with a prelude and continue with an allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue; in a few the gigue is omitted entirely or replaced by another dance or an aria, and no.4 of the second set begins with a ciacona. A particularly interesting work is the Sonata in B  appended to the second part. Becker claimed that this was the first ever keyboard sonata, but, as more recent research has shown (see especially Newman, 1953–4), Kuhnau was simply following a tradition, already established in the keyboard music of other countries, in which composers used the styles and forms of the instrumental ensemble sonata. His sonata is, however, the earliest known work of its type published in Germany.  More than half of Kuhnau's known vocal compositions, of which there were originally over 100, have been lost, and of those known to be extant only a handful have been published in modern editions (see Rimbach, however, for transcriptions of almost all the church cantatas). Critical opinion has generally dismissed the cantatas as routine and uninspired, though competently composed. Such judgments are not borne out by the music itself. While Kuhnau's cantatas are to some extent modelled on those of Knüpfer and Schelle, his predecessors at the Thomaskirche, they are on the whole simpler in style, at least in their melodic and harmonic elements. 

But they are far from mediocre; on the contrary, most of them are strikingly beautiful and often dramatic. They show a stability of formal structure previously unknown in German cantatas that strongly anticipates the Leipzig cantatas of Bach (Kuhnau's successor as Thomaskantor). The cantatas usually begin with an instrumental introduction (designated ‘sonata’) followed by an alternation, in the solo works, of aria and recitative or, in the choral works, of chorus, aria and recitative in various orders. Many of the arias, though brief, have a da capo structure and are markedly more lyrical than the songlike movements found in earlier German cantatas. Some of the cantatas open and close with chorales, a few of which are given instrumental concertato settings. The chorale, however, plays only a minor role in Kuhnau's conception of the cantata, and only two of the extant works are true chorale cantatas. The most impressive elements in the cantatas with chorus are the elaborately constructed choral movements, which include frequent dramatic shifts between homophonic sections and powerful, often complex fugues; such a structure gives various kinds of rhetorical emphasis to the poetic texts (a number of which are by Neumeister). In these works Kuhnau created a musical oratory which, according to his own detailed comments regarding cantata texts (see Richter: ‘Eine Abhandlung’), was uppermost in his mind in his efforts to write church music that was untainted by the tendency towards the secularism arising from the growing popularity of opera.

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7 comentaris:

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  2. Pau, podries renovar el link? Gràcies

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  4. Buenos días. ¿Podría volver a subir este disco? Muchísimas gracias de antemano. Gracias también por compartir a través de este magnífico blog. Saludos,

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