dimecres, 13 d’abril de 2016

KRAUS, Josef Martin (1756-1792) - Begravningskantat (1792)

Elias Martin - Mountain Landscape with Banditti (c.1780)
Obra d'Elias Martin (1739-1818), pintor suec (1)




Parlem de Pintura...

Elias Martin (Stockholm, 8 de març de 1739 - Stockholm, 25 de gener de 1818) va ser un pintor suec, especialitzat en pintura de gènere, històrica i paisatgística i considerat el primer pintor important de paisatges de la història del seu país. Fill de fuster, el seu pare va procurar que el seu fill seguís l'empresa familiar però ràpidament va mostrar interès en l'art. En aquest sentit, es va formar amb el pintor F.C. Schultz. Abans d'acabar la seva formació, va ser contractar per l'arquitecte naval Fredrik Henrik af Chapman per tal de dissenyar adorns en els vaixells. Allà va conèixer el coronel i pintor Augustin Ehrensvärd qui el va animar a fer vistes dels paisatges d'aquell entorn. El maig de 1766 va viatjar a París on va decidir treballar pel seu compte, primer intentant imitar l'estil de François Boucher per després prescindir-ne per tal de desenvolupar el seu estil. El 1770 es va traslladar a Londres viatjant a diferents regions angleses per tal de plasmar els diferents paisatges. Sota la inspiració de Claude Lorrain i dels pintors de l'escola anglesa, van ser alguns dels millors anys de Martin, tant des d'una perspectiva de paisatges com de pintura històrica, de gènere i retrats. El seu èxit fou recompensat amb el seu nomenament com a membre de la Royal Academy of Arts i el 1781 de la Reial Acadèmia Sueca de les Arts. El 1782 va tornar a Suècia on va realitzar les seves millors obres abans de tornar a visitar Anglaterra el 1788. El 1791, reclamat per Gustav III, va tornar a Suècia quedant-se a Estocolm la resta de la seva vida. Allà va realitzar nombroses composicions de paisatge, gravats i aquarel·les. El seu germà Johan Fredrik Martin va ser pintor. Elias va morir a Estocolm el gener de 1818.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Elias Martin (1739-1818) - Altres: Elias Martin (1739-1818)



Parlem de Música...

Josef Martin Kraus (Miltenberg am Main, 20 de juny de 1756 - Stockholm, 15 de desembre de 1792) va ser un compositor alemany, actiu principalment a Suècia. Es va formar inicialment a Buchen im Odenwald i posteriorment a Mannheim. El 1773 va entrar a la Universitat de Mainz on va estudiar Filosofia, el 1774 a la d’Erfurt on va estudiar Dret i finalment el 1776 a la de Gottingen on va estudiar Jurisprudència. En aquell temps va publicar una col·lecció de poemes per nom Versuch von Schäfersgedichte (Mainz, 1773), el drama Tolon (Frankfurt, 1776) i un nombre indeterminat de música religiosa, inclosos els oratoris Die Geburt Jesu i Der Tod Jesu. El 1778 va rebre la proposta per part de Carl Stridsberg d’acompanyar-lo a Estocolm per tal de provar fortuna a la cort de Gustav III. Els primers anys a Suècia van ser difícils fins el 1781, l’any en què va ser admès a la Reial Acadèmia Sueca de Música. Poc després, l’èxit de la seva òpera Proserpin va facilitar el seu accés com a assistent del mestre de capella de l’Òpera Reial. Va iniciar en aquell temps una gira per Europa entrant en contacte amb Joseph Haydn, Salieri i Gluck. A Itàlia va realitzar curoses descripcions dels seus teatres i a Londres va ser el responsable de la Segona Commemoració d’Händel. A finals del 1786 va tornar a Suècia on el 1787 va ser nomenat administrador de la Reial Acadèmia de Música. Un any després va succeir a Uttini com a mestre de capella de la Cort Reial. Convertit en una figura de referència, les seves obres teatrals van despertar l’interès del públic suec. Van ser aquells els millors anys de Kraus qui va compartir estreta amistat amb el famós poeta i cantant Carl Michael Bellman, amb qui va fundar la Diktarkretsen, un cercle musical i literari. No obstant i poc després de la mort de Gustav III, Kraus va morir de tuberculosis el desembre de 1792.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

Stage:
Azire, 1778 (Spl, 3, C. Stridsberg), unperf., only autograph frags. extant
Proserpin (Op, 1, J.H. Kellgren, after Gustavus III and P. Quinault), Ulriksdal Castle, 1 June 1781, S-St
Aeneas i Cartago, eller Dido och Aeneas, 1782–91 (lyric tragedy, prol., 5, Kellgren after Gustavus III and J.-J. le Franc de Pompignan: Didon), Royal Opera, 18 Nov 1799, A-Wn, S-Skma, St; 2 ovs., ed. W. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1956)
Le bon seigneur, 1784–6 (oc, 1)
Oedip, 1785 (lyric tragedy, 3), 1 act completed, lost
Zélia, ou L’origine de la félicité (melodrama, 1, J. d’Invilliers), Paris, 1786, lost
Fintbergs bröllop [Fintberg’s Marriage] (comedy with song, 2, C.G. von Holthusen), Munkbro, 7 Jan 1788
Fricorpsen, eller Dalkarlarne [The Free Corps, or Men from Dalacarlia] (comedy with song, 1, D. Björn), Bollhuset, 1 Nov 1788, lost
Fiskarena [The Fishers] (pantomine-ballet, choreog. A. Bournonville), Stockholm, Royal Opera, 9 March 1789, St
Soliman II, or The Three Sultanas] (drama with music, 3, divertissement, J.G. Oxenstierna, after C.S. Favart), Royal Dramatic, 22 Sept 1789, St, Skma
Marknaden [The Market Place] (Spl, 1, Björn), Munkbro, 8 Oct 1792, lost

Entr’actes and ballet for Amphitryon (tragedy, Molière), Paris, 1784;
2 ballet movts for Gluck: Armide, Stockholm, 24 Jan 1787, St;
1 aria for Visittimman [The Visiting Hour] (comic play, after Poisinet: Le cercle), in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1789);
1 aria for Mexikanska systrarna [The Mexican Sisters] (play with songs, Sparrschöld), Stockholm, Bollhuset, 13 Oct 1789, in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1790);
music in Födelsedagen [The Birthday] (comedy with song, 1, Gustavus III and Björn), Royal Opera, 20 Nov 1790, lost;
music in Äfventyraren, eller Resan till månens ö [The Adventures, or The Journey to the Isle of the Moon] (Spl, 2, J. Lannerstierna), 1791, St;
9 choruses for Oedipe (tragedy, 3, G.G. Alderbeth), Stockholm, 10 March 1792;
2 arias, 2 trios, qt for Le bon seigneur (comic play with music);
incid music for Olympie (tragedy, Kellgren);
2 pantomines, 1768–72

Secular, orch acc.:
Cant. for the king’s birthday (C.C. Gröning), 4vv, 1782;
Den frid et menlöst hjerta njuter [An Innocent Heart Enjoys Peace] (cant.), 1782, Skma;
Begravningskantat for Gustavus III (C.G. Leopold), 4 solo vv, 4vv, 1792, vs (Stockholm, 1792), ed. in MMS, ix (1979);
Chorus, 3 solo vv, 4 vv, from Prol for birthday of Duke Carl of Södermanland, Stockholm, 7 Oct 1791;
4 small cants. (P. Metastasio);
20 concert arias and duets, incl. Son Pietosa (Leipzig, 1797) and Ma tu tremi (Stockholm, 1883), pubd as Plus de crainte, vs (Paris, c1900)

Secular, pf acc.:
7 small cants., 1–4vv (Bellman), incl. Elegie, in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1793), Fiskarstugan [The Little Fishing Hut] (Stockholm, 1794), ed. (Stockholm, 1964);
56 Lieder in Dan., Dutch, Fr., Ger., It., Swed., incl. 20 airs et chansons (Leipzig, 1797/R), Atis och Camilla (G.P. Creutz), in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1793), Se källen, se bålen [See the Spring, See the Grove], zither acc., in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1794), Ynglingarne, pubd as Meerstrum, AMZ, iii/3 (1801), ed. in Engländer (1943);
Die Mutter bei der Wiege (Die Nase), attrib. Mozart, Cäcilia, xxv (1846);

Other works:
Canons: Meine Mutter hat Gänse (M. Claudius), 4vv;
Sumus hic sedentes (Carmen biblicum), canon and choruses, 4vv;
Amici r’in tavola (S. Maffei), canon and choruses, 4vv

Vocal religiosa:

Der Tod Jesus (orat, J.M. Kraus), 1776, ed. B. van Boer (Madison, 1987);
Die Geburt Jesu (orat, Kraus), lost;
Kom din herdestaff att bära [Come Bear your Shepherd’s Crook] (cant., C.M. Bellman), D, 1790, St;
Fracto demum sacramento, motet, D, 1776;
Stella coeli, motet, C, 1783, A-Wn;
2 sacred arias, 1776;
Mot en alsväldig magt [Towards an Almighty Power], aria, E , 1782, S-Skma;
Förkunnom högt [Proclaim on High], contrafactum motet on lost Kraus original, C, Sk;
Miserere, c/F, 1774, D-Bsb;
Requiem, d, 1775; TeD, D, 1776;
TeD finale, g/E , 1785–7, S-Skma;
other miscellaneous and lost works

Instrumental:

Syms.:
6, F, C, C, c , E , D (Riksdagssymfoni), 1775–89, ed. in The Symphony 1720–1840, ser. F, ii (New York, 1982);
c, 1783, (Leipzig, 1797), ed. W. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1956), ed. in MMS, ii (1960);
Symphonie funèbre (Stockholm, 1792), ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1957), ed. in MMS, ix (1979); D, 1782–3 (Paris, c1787–8), ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1956);
e, attrib. G. Cambini (Paris, 1787);
F, attrib. Cambini (Paris, 1787);
Sinfonia con fugato per la chiesa, 1789, ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1957–8);
Ov. per la chiesa, d, 1789–90, S-Skma, St;
Sinfonia buffa, F, 1769–72;
A, 1769–72; 6, 1776, lost;
other syms., 1769–75, 1784–6, lost

Other orch:
Vn Conc., C, 1777, rev. 1783, ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1959);
Conc., 2 vn, 1769–72, lost;
Fl Conc., 1777, lost;
2 symphonies concertantes, 1777, lost;
Riksdagsmarsch, rev. march from Mozart, Idomeneo (1.ii), D, Skma, L, St;
Contradances, lost

Chbr:
Qnt, D, fl, str qt, op.7, 1783 (Paris, c1799), ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1959), ed. A. Hoffmann (Wolfenbüttel, 1961);
6 quatuours concertants (Berlin, 1784), ed. Hoffmann (Wolfenbüttel, 1961);
2 qts, HÄ, before 1778;
Qt, C, 1782, Skma, ed. Hoffmann (Wolfenbüttel, 1961);
Pf trio, D, 1788, Skma, ed. Lebermann (Wiesbaden, 1959);
5 sonatas, vn, pf;
sonata, D, fl, va, 1778, ed. in NM, lxxvi (1931), ed. H.-J. Kraus (Frankfurt, 1981)

Pf solo:
Due sonate per il Forte Piano (Stockholm, 1788);
Sonata for Countess Ingelheim, lost; Rondo, F (n.p., n.d.);
Svenska dans, C;
2 Scherzenminuetten, C, c;
Allegro, D, pf, vn, acc., Skma
Larghetto, G;
Tema con variazioni (Scherzo), C, in Musikaliskt tidsfördrif (1793), also pubd as Minuetto con XII variazioni, pf, vn acc. (London, 1791), attrib. I. Pleyel, also as Sonatina with 12 Variations (London, c1805), attrib. J. Haydn

Org:
6 preludes, Skma

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Josef Martin Kraus (1756-1792) In english: Josef Martin Kraus (1756-1792) - Altres: Josef Martin Kraus (1756-1792)



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

Kraus can be considered the most original and notable composer in Sweden during the Gustavian period. His German education, coupled with his experiences during his grand tour, gave him a cosmopolitan outlook that was absorbed into his music. As early as 1778 he declared himself an ardent admirer of Gluck and Grétry, who served as his models and whose works he knew from memory. His participation in the debate on opera in the Stockholm newspapers Stockholms Posten and Dagligt Allehanda, 1778–82, shows much concern with the fusion of drama and music. He had difficulty, however, in getting his own major operas performed. Azire, written to give the Swedes ‘something original’, as he put it, was ignored, and Proserpin probably had only a single private performance. Because of intrigues, his greatest work, Aeneas i Cartago, had its première only in 1799, seven years after his death. During the period 1787–92, on the other hand, he was a popular composer whose other music for the stage was highly prized. Kraus’s musical style is highly original, with a distinctive sense of lyrical melody, bold harmonies which often anticipate Beethoven or Schubert, and a complex rhythmic structure, particularly in the inner voices. His overriding compositional premise was the infusion of drama into all genres of music, a notion that stems from his contact with the literary Sturm und Drang. His operas, with their through-composed recitatives and extensive use of choruses and ballet, show his relationship with Gluck; he developed dramatic unity through the use of motivic devices, and he had a keen sense of the inner feelings of his characters, whose moods are often underscored at the expense of virtuoso display. In the serious operas his writings can be terse and emotional, while the comic ones show lightness of touch. A master at developing the operatic epic, Kraus’s major works Proserpin and Aeneas i Cartago create realistic scenas that give life and drama to classical stories; in the latter, the tragic love between Dido and Aeneas is played out against gigantic storms, temple sacrifices, a hunt and a final battle with three armies on stage.

Kraus’s sacred works, written mostly during his early career, frequently use plainchant as the musical foundation, in addition to having highly complex counterpoint. The oratorio Der Tod Jesu, to which Kraus himself wrote the text, is based upon Graun’s more famous work, although it consists mostly of philosophical reflections on the Crucifixion. A motet, Stella coeli, written in 1783 for the Benedictine monastery in Amorbach, contains an extraordinarily complex fugue and was apparently written in only two days, while Handel’s influence can be felt in the Te Deum finale of 1785. Kraus was a sensitive and precise orchestrator, using a rich palette to create varying textures and moods in both dramatic and symphonic music. The Symphony in C minor, hailed by Haydn as one of the most ingenious works of the period, borrows from Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide in the opening before devolving into powerful, driving rhythms and extensive internal thematic development. The symphonic music often has a dramatic function; one of the earliest works is characterized as a Sinfonia buffa, while the final two, the Riksdagsmusik (a march derived from Mozart’s Idomeneo and a Sinfonia da chiesa) and the Symphonie funèbre, were written for state occasions, the former for the parliament of 1789 and the latter for the funeral procession of his patron Gustavus III. Kraus was also active as a song composer, writing works in seven languages. As a poet himself, he was always sensitive to the emotions evoked by the text, from the cynical philosophy of Die Welt nach Rousseau to the Romantic through-composed ode Skulda winkt and the poignant Farväl mitt kära barn. Of particular note are the short piano cantata series Fiskarstugan to texts by Bellman. Kraus’s chamber works include five sonatas for violin and fortepiano, including one with scordatura, a trio, ten string quartets (including six published in 1784 as his op.1 by Hummel) and a flute quintet. These are characterized by considerable rhythmic freedom, extensive use of concertante writing, particularly of the viola and cello, and long lyrical lines. The keyboard music shows the influence of C.P.E. Bach.

GROVE MUSIC ONLINE (source/font: aquí)

Gaudiu i compartiu! 



Informació addicional... 

INTERPRETS: L'Arte del Mondo; Rias Kammerchor; Werner Ehrhardt
RECICLASSICAT: KRAUS, Josef Martin (1756-1792)
AMAZON: KRAUS, J.M. - Begrabnis Kantate & Trauersinfonie
CPDL: No disponible
SPOTIFY: KRAUS, J.M. - Begrabnis Kantate & Trauersinfonie



Tant si us ha agradat, com si no, opineu, és lliure i fàcil!

6 comentaris:

  1. Un administrador del blog ha eliminat aquest comentari.

    ResponElimina
  2. Merci beaucoup, je ne connais pas cette version !

    ResponElimina
  3. Thanks, Pau, something unknown again: wonderful!
    Hug, Sasja.

    ResponElimina
  4. Great!!! Muchas gracias and a big hug also from me,
    Barbara

    ResponElimina