dilluns, 8 de febrer de 2016

PRAETORIUS, Jacob (1586-1651) - Magnificat primi toni

Guercino - St. Cecilia
Obra de Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (1591-1666), pintor italià (1)



- Recordatori de Jacob Praetorius -
En el dia de la celebració del seu 430è aniversari de naixement



Parlem de Pintura...

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Cento, 8 de febrer de 1591 - Bologna, 9 de desembre de 1666), més conegut amb el sobrenom Guercino o Il Guercino, va ser un pintor barroc italià nascut a la regió d'Emilia, encara que va viure i va pintar també a Roma i Bolonya. Va representar el període de transició del classicisme romà-bolonyès al ple barroc. 'Guercino' significa guerxo en italià i va tenir aquest sobrenom perquè va patir d'estrabisme. Amb 17 anys es va associar amb Benedetto Gennari "el Vell", un pintor de l'Escola de Bolonya. El 1615 es va traslladar a Bolonya, on les seves obres es van guanyar els elogis de Ludovico Carracci, ja ancià. Després de la mort de Gregori XV, el 1623 es va traslladar de nou a Cento. El 1642 es va instal·lar a Bolonya com a successor de Guido Reni a la direcció de l'Escola de Bolonya. Va intentar imitar l'assossegat classicisme de Reni pel que la seva obra va perdre força però va guanyar en refinament i solidesa, com pot apreciar-se en el seu Sant Tomàs d'Aquino (1663, Sant Domenico, Bolonya). Les seves obres anteriors, com la Mort de Dido (1630, Galeria Spada, Roma) i Crist a la columna (1657, Palau Chigi, Roma), són més apassionades. Influenciat per Ludovico Carracci a Bolonya i per l'obra de Ticià a Venècia, Guercino va desenvolupar un estil barroc de rics colors, forts contrastos de llums i ombres i gràcil representació del moviment. Sota el mecenatge del papa Gregori XV, Guercino va pintar el fresc de l'Aurora (1621, Vila Ludovisi, Roma) i altres obres d'inspiració més clàssica, com l'Enterrament de Santa Petronila (1621, Museu Capitolí, Roma). Va morir a Bolonya el desembre de 1666.




Parlem de Música...

Jacob Praetorius (Hamburg, 8 de febrer de 1586 - Hamburg, 21 o 22 d'octubre de 1651) va ser un organista i compositor alemany. Segon fill d'Hieronymus Praetorius, es va formar amb el seu pare abans d'estudiar orgue amb Sweelinck a Àmsterdam. A partir del 1603, i fins l'últim dels seus dies, va ser l'organista titular de la Petrikirche d'Hamburg on va ser especialment conegut per la seva labora docent com a professor d'orgue. Alguns dels seus alumnes van ser Berendt Petri, Heinrich Grimm i Matthias Weckmann. Com a compositor va escriure abundant música d'orgue però també obra vocal religiosa i una sèrie de motets per a celebracions i bodes. Va morir a Hamburg l'octubre de 1651.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

Qui habitas in hortis, 1v, bc, D-Hs (inc.)
Viva la bella musica, canon, 4vv, 1614, lost, formerly Lübeck Stadtbibliothek; facs. in Stammbuch von David von Mandelsloh, ed. W.L. von Lutgendorff (Hamburg, 1893); ed. in Stiehl

Vocal religiosa:

Gaudete omnes, 6vv;
Surge propera, 5vv;
Veni in hortum meum, 8vv (Hamburg, 1607); RRMBE lxxiii
In te, Domine speravi, canon, 6vv, 1648, D-Bsb; facs. in MGG1
19 chorale settings, 4vv, in Melodeyen Gesangbuch, ed. H. Praetorius (Hamburg, 1604); ed. K. Ladda and K. Beckmann (Singen, 1995)
10 continuo songs, 1v, bc, in J. Rist: Neuer Himlischer Lieder Sonderbahres Buch, iv (Lüneburg, 1651); 2 ed. in Winterfeld

Wedding motets:
originals mostly lost; transcriptions extant in D-Bsb and D-Hs
Caecilia virgo gloriosa, 6vv (Hamburg, 1601), lost
Quam pulchra es, 5vv (Hamburg, 1606); RRMBE lxxiii
Surge propera, 5vv (Frankfurt, 1611); RRMBE lxxiii
Vidi speciosam, 8vv (Hamburg, 1615); RRMBE lxxiii
Sponse musarum, 6vv (Hamburg, 1617); RRMBE lxxiii
Forti animo esto, 8vv (Hamburg, 1619); RRMBE lxxiii
Quis novus hic oritur, 6vv (Hamburg, 1627); RRMBE lxxiii
Indica mihi, 6vv (Hamburg, 1635); RRMBE lxxiii
Ich freue mich im Herrn, 2vv, bc (Hamburg, 1640), lost

Instrumental:

Organ:
Christum wir sollen loben schon, D-Lr; G, B
Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt, Bsb (inc.); G, B
Grates nunc omnes, S-VIl; G, ed. in Kite-Powell
Herr Gott dich loben wir, 1636, D-Lr; G, B
Vater unser im Himmelreich, CZ; B
Von allen Menschen abgewandt, D-W; ed. K. Beckmann, Hieronymus Praetorius: Sämtliche Orgelwerke (Moos am Bodensee, 1994)
Was kan uns komen an für Noth, CZ; B
6 Magnificat, DK-Kk; ed. in Glahn and Sørensen
Magnificat germanicae, S-VIl; G, ed. in Kite-Powell
3 preludes, C, D, F, D-Lr; ed. in Organum, iv/2 (Leipzig, 1925)

Font: En català: Jacob Praetorius (1586-1651) En castellano: No disponible In english: Jacob Praetorius (1586-1651) - Altres: Jacob Praetorius (1586-1651)



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the MAGNIFICAT was an integral part of the vesper service, as is evident from the large number of Magnificat arrangements by composers of northern Germany. They are usually cycles organized by church mode and with a variable series of often unnumbered versets. These versets were frequently performed alternatim, as prescribed as early as 1529 by Johannes Bugenhagen for the ordinary of the church of Hamburg. Several variants of this type of ordinary in alternation are extant, from the most simple choro vel organo alternation (as mentioned by Franz Eler in 1588) to the most complex type between the organ, the (boys') choir, the vulgus (the congregation), the precentor and the puellae (young girls), as Laurentius Stiphelius described it in 1609. Another possibility – the one presented in this recording – is to group several versets, a practice already documented in the fourteenth century. The parts of the Magnificat sung in this recording are taken from Eler's collection of Cantica sacra (1588), which was used as the official hymn book in Hamburg until 1700. Concerning their performance we read that »The organist asks the precentor what Introitus or Responsorium and in what mode he is going to sing, because disagreement on the songs would cause disarray and anger in the listeners.« In order to facilitate the coordination of the modes, Eler mentions the tone in Latin at the end of each melody. 

In the eighteenth century Mattheson still emphasizes the importance of such a practice. Moreover, in the 1614 Ratzeburg ordinary we can read that »The organist and the schoolteacher need to be in agreement about performing per vice or in alternatim in order for everyone to know precisely when to begin singing or playing and when to stop, so that the songs can be separated in such a manner that those versets which need to be logically sung or played together are not separated. « Usually, the Magnificat opens with a verset in four parts performed on the plenum, in a typically Hamburg festive style in which the organist plays the bass line and the cantus firmus (in the tenor) pedaliter if possible. In the subsequent versets the cantus firmus is augmented with passage work and special sound effects (e.g. echos), obtained through the use of several manuals. In 1699 the Latin Magnificat was replaced by its German version (Magnificat germanice) in Hamburg, and four years later also in Lübeck, and from then on it was only performed in one single church mode. This would eventually lead to the decline of such specific genres as the chorale fantasy, to which certain versets of the Magnificat belonged. Magnificat arrangements by Buxtehude, for example, have maintained virtually no relationship with the original chant: the cantus firmus was practically no longer recognizable to the congregation. Of later composers such as Franz Tunder or Vincent Lübeck, we do not know any Magnificat arrangements.

Booklet extract

Gaudiu i compartiu! 



Informació addicional... 

INTERPRETS: Léon Berben (organ); Britta Schwarz (mezzo-soprano)
AMAZON: PRAETORIUS, J. - Von allen Menschen abgewandt
SPOTIFY: PRAETORIUS, J. - Von allen Menschen abgewandt



Tant si us ha agradat, com si no, opineu, és lliure i fàcil!

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