dijous, 17 de setembre de 2015

KJERULF, Halfdan (1815-1868) - Songs

Laurits Andersen Ring - Ved frokostbordet og morgenaviserne (1898)
Obra de Laurits Andersen Ring (1854-1933), pintor danès (1)



- Recordatori d'Halfdan Kjerulf -
En el dia de la celebració del seu 200è aniversari de naixement



Parlem de Pintura...

Laurits Andersen Ring (Ring, 15 d'agost de 1854 - Skt. Jørgensbjerg, 10 de setembre de 1933) va ser un pintor danès. Fill d'un fuster, va néixer a la petita població de Ring en honor de la qual es va assignar, el 1881, el cognom Ring. Va ser alumne a l'Acadèmia Reial de Belles Arts de Copenhaguen abans de viatjar a París el 1889 i a Itàlia la dècada del 1890. Com a pintor va destacar per les escenes rurals amb una atmosfera a la vegada realista, romàntica i sovint simbòlica. El seu referent fou el seu coetani i pintor danès Vilhelm Hammershøi. Es va casar amb la pintora Sigrid Kähler, a qui va fer servir de model en una de les seves millors obres. Va morir a la localitat danesa de Skt. Jørgensbjerg el setembre de 1933.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Laurits Andersen Ring (1854-1933) In english: Laurits Andersen Ring (1854-1933) - Altres: Laurits Andersen Ring (1854-1933)



Parlem de Música...

Halfdan Kjerulf (Christiania [ara Oslo], 17 de setembre de 1815 - Christiania, 11 d'agost de 1868) va ser un professor i compositor noruec. Es va formar en piano i teoria musical de ben petit abans d'estudiar Dret a la Universitat. El 1839 va patir una greu malaltia que per raons de salut el va obligar a viatjar a París el 1840. Allà va entrar en contacte amb la música d'una forma més intensa que a Noruega. Possiblement aquesta circumstància va ser determinant en l'esdevenir de la seva carrera musical posterior. La tardor del 1840 va tornar a Oslo, on va viure la sobtada mort del seu pare, germà i germana. Aquest drama familiar va obligar a Kjerulf a treballar de periodista per a mantenir la família. La tardor del 1841 va publicar les seves 6 Cançons Op.1. Es va seguir formant musicalment de forma autodidacta i va fundar, el 1845, una societat coral per nom Norske Studentersangforening i el quartet vocal Kjerulf's Quartet. Aquell mateix any va començar a donar classes de piano i va estudiar composició amb el pianista Carl Arnold, qui el va ajudar a entrar en contacte amb Gade a Copenhaguen i amb E.F. Richter a Leipzig. El 1851 va tornar a Suècia on es va establir com a mestre de piano, la principal professió de la seva vida. Entre els seus alumnes cal destacar a Agathe Grøndahl i Erika Nissen. Els darrers anys va ser condecorat en diverses ocasions i en general ben rebut com a compositor, convertint-se en membre de la Reial Acadèmia Sueca de Música el 1865. Va morir a Oslo l'agost de 1868.

OBRA:

(selective list)

Vocal secular:

printed works published in Stockholm unless otherwise stated

Male choruses:
Barcarole (J.L. Heiberg);
Brudefaerden i Hardanger [The Bridal Procession in Hardanger] (A. Munch);
Aftensang [Evening Song] (Munch), Den blide dag [The Mild Day] (J.S. Welhaven);
Norges fjelde [Norway’s Mountains] (H. Wergeland); Gildesang [Banquet Song] (C. Frimann);
Studenter-sommervise [Students’ Summer Song] (P.A. Jensen);
Tonernes flugt [The Tone’s Flight] (H. Hertz);
Serenade ved strandbredden [Serenade at the shore] (C. Winther);
Frejdigt liv [Peaceful life] (anon.)
Serenade (Hugo), Norges natur (Wergeland);
Jaegersang [Hunter’s Song] (Welhaven);
Morgenvandring [Morning Wandering] (E. Geibel);
I skoven [In the Woods] (Geibel);
Solvirkning [Sun’s Effect] (Welhaven);
Unge piger og gammel vin [Young Girls and Old Wine] (Geibel);
Sangerhilsen til damerne [Song-Greeting to the Ladies] (Welhaven);
Natten [The Night] (Carl XV);
Aus dem Schenkenbuch II (Geibel);
Kan det trøste [Can it Console] (Winther);
Kavalierernes sang af Woodstock [The Cavalier’s Song from Woodstock] (W. Scott)
Jubilate (T. Moore);
Livets seilads [The Voyage of Life] (A. Stub);
Jaegeres sang paa fjeldet [Hunter’s Song on the Mountain] (Welhaven);
Sanger-hilsen til bruden [Song-Greeting to the Bride] (T. Kjerulf);
Serenade (T. Kjerulf);
I granskoven [In the Spruce Forest] (J. Monrad);
Til Bergen [To Bergen] (Bjørnson);
Ton, søde strenge [Sound, Sweet String] (A. Oehlenschläger);
Haev dig, vor sang [Let our Song Arise] (Welhaven)

Arrs.:
Bonden i Brydlupsgaren [The Peasant at the Wedding] (Nor. folksong);
Heimreise fraa saeteren [Journey Home from the Summer Farm] (Nor. folksong);
Pilgrimssang (anon. 12th century);
Ho Guro (Nor. folksong);
Druens pris [In Praise of Wine] (E. Falsen) [melody by F.L.A. Kuntzen];
Astri, mi Astri (Nor. folksong);
Døl’n [Mountaineer] (Nor. folksong), KA;
Paal paa Haugen [Pål on the Hill] (Nor. folksong);
E mindes vael den gøng [I Remember] (Nor. folksong);
Du rossignol qui chante (Fr. folksong);
Quand la bergère (Fr. folksong)
Les compagnons de la Marjolaine (Fr. folksong);
La pêche des moules (Fr. folksong);
Le célèbre menuet d’Exaudet (Fr. folksong);
Santa Lucia (It. folksong);
La gondoletta (It. folksong);
[9] Fredmans epistlar (nos.16, 20, 31, 48, 52, 58, 60, 64, 75) (C.M. Bellman);
[3] Fredmans sånger (nos.9, 28, 41) (Bellman)

Songs:
op.
1 Sex sange (Christiania, 1841): Nøkken [The Water Elf] (J.S. Welhaven), Romance Agnete og Havmanden (H.C. Andersen), Min skat [My Treasure] (C. Winther), Laengsel [Longing] (Winther), Lied (A. von Platen), Violen [The Violet] (A. Oehlenschläger, after J.W. von Goethe)
2 Romancer (Christiania, 1851–2): Buesnoren [The Bowstring] (Welhaven), Af Alfernes hvisken [From the Elves’ Whisper] (Welhaven), Elveløbet [The Torrent] (Welhaven), Paa fjeldet [In the Mountains] (Welhaven), En vaarnat [A Spring Evening] (Welhaven), Syng, syng (T. Kjerulf), Romance af Aly og Gulhundy (Oehlenschläger), Og vil du vaere vennen min [And will you be my Friend] (T. Kjerulf)
3 Sex sånger (1856): Min elskte, jeg er bunden [My Beloved, I am not Free] (Welhaven), Laengsel [Longing] (Winther), Du fragst mich du (E. Geibel), Det var då [It was Then] (J.L. Runeberg), Vidste du vei [If you Knew the Way] (T. Kjerulf), Lokkende toner [Enticing Sounds] (Welhaven)
5 Otte sånger (1858): Chanson (V. Hugo), Så ensam uti natten [So Lonesome in the Night] (Carl XV), Hvile i skoven [Rest in the Woods] (Welhaven), I søde blege kinder [You Sweet Pale Cheeks] (T. Kjerulf), Spansk romans ur Spanisches Liederbuch (trans. P. Heyse and Geibel), Framnäs (Carl XV), Liebespredigt (F. Rückert), I skoven [In the Woods] (Winther)
6 Otte norske viser (1859): Vejviseren synger [The Guide-post Sings] (Welhaven), Ved sjøen den mørke [By the Dark Lake] (H. Wergeland), Synnøves sang (B. Bjørnson), Ingrids vise (Bjørnson), Solskins-vise [Sunshine Song] (Bjørnson), Venevil (Bjørnson), Over de høje fjelde [Over the High Mountains] (Bjørnson), Hjemad [Homeward] (J. Moe)
9 Sex franska romanser (1861): Quand tu dors (Hugo), Romance, from Ruy Blas (Hugo), Les rayons et les ombres (Hugo), Le retour (Hugo), Chanson (Hugo), L’attente (Richer)
11 Syv sange (1863): Naar kommer rosentiden? [When will the Time of Roses Come?] (T. Kjerulf), Bøn for den elskede [Prayer for the Beloved] (T. Kjerulf), Foraarsdigt [Spring Poem] (Welhaven), Aftenstemning [Evening Mood] (Welhaven), Den långa dagen [The Long Day] (Runeberg), Gud vet det, hvar han vankar [God knows Where he Walks] (D. Klockhoff), Albumsblatt (Hoffmann von Fallersleben)
14 Fem sange (Bjørnson) (1865): Aftenstemning [Evening Mood], Søvnen [Sleep], Dulgt kjaerlighed [Hidden Love], Ved søen [By the Lake], O, vidste du bare! [O, If you Only Knew!]
15 Sex sange (1866): Svundne dage [Bygone Days] (Munch), Den friske sang [The Gay Song] (Welhaven), Taylors sang (Bjørnson), En sommersang (Welhaven), Laengsel [Longing] (T. Kjerulf), Natten paa fjorden [The Night on the Fjord] (A. Munch)
16 Sange (trans. from Eng., Caralis) (1867): Det var så tyst [It was so Silent] (J.J. Callanan), Mit hjerte og min lyra [My Heart and my Lyre] (Moore), Hyrdepigens sang [The Shepherdess’s Song] (R.M. Milnes), Serenade (Byron), Skovbaekken [The Brooklet in the Woods] (Moore)
17 Danske og norske sange (Copenhagen, 1867): Hvad har jeg vel andet villet [What More could I have Wanted] (Winther), Ved sundet [By the Sound] (Welhaven), Du kommer [You are Coming] (C. Ploug), Ved afskeden [At the Parting] (T. Kjerulf), Den elsktes naerhed [The Nearness of the Beloved] (E. Aarestrup, after Goethe), Paa fjellet [In the Mountains] (K. Janson)
18 Tre sånger, B, pf (1868): Saknaden [The Absent One] (Runeberg), Der Einsiedler (J. von Eichendorff), Das Schiff (K. Vollheim, after C. Mackay)
19 Fyra sånger (1868): Sjömansflickan [The Sailor’s Girl] (Runeberg), Ynglingen [The Youth] (Runeberg), Modren vid vaggan [The Mother by the Cradle] (F.M. Franzén), Förställningen [The Dissimulation] (Runeberg)
20 Fire sange (Geibel) (1869): Lass Andre nur, Des Mondes Silber rinnt, Vöglein wohin so schnell?, Sehnsucht
23 Fem sange (1870): Bergens stift [Bergen’s Diocese] (Welhaven), I granskoven [In the Spruce Forest] (M.J. Monrad), Sangfugl fra de dunkle buske [Songbird from the Dark Bushes] (Bjørnson), Alfeland [Fairyland] (Welhaven), Just som jeg favned dit liv [Just as I Embraced You] (Bjørnson)
25 Fyra sånger (1871): Die Schwester (after F. Hemans), Guten Morgen (K. Vollheim, after C. Mackay), Gute Nacht (Vollheim, after Mackay), Ich fuhr über Meer (Sp., trans. Heyse and Geibel)
26 Sange (Moore, trans. Caralis) (1872): Gaa kun glands at vinde [Only go to Win Glory], Vagtskuddet [The Watch’s Shot], Om jeg elske vil dig [Will I Love You]

Täuschung (K. Beck);
Es stand ein Veilchenstrauss (Geibel);
Waldabendlust (C. Mayer);
Hjemfart [Journey Home] (Welhaven);
Nachwirkung (A. Meissner);
Wie rafft ich mich auf (Platen);
Scheiden, Leiden (Geibel);
Höchstes Leben (Geibel);
Nach langen Jahren (Geibel);
Serenade (P.A. Jensen);
In der Ferne (H. Kletke);
Den hvide, røde rose [The White, Red Rose] (Bjørnson);
Treibe nur mit Lieben Spott (Sp., trans. Heyse);
Murmelndes Lüftchen (Sp., trans. Heyse and Geibel);
Ingen vej [No Way] (T. Kjerulf);
Taushed og sang [Silence and Song] (Welhaven)

Other vocal:
Søcadetterne iland [The Naval Cadets Ashore] (H. Wergeland), Singspiel, solo vv, chorus, orch [orchd by P. Sperati], N-Oum
Serenade ved strandbredden [Serenade at the Shore] (Winther), T, SSA, pf, op.8 (1861)
Troubadouren (Welhaven), T, SATB, pf, op.17b (1868)

Duets:
4 sange, op.10, 2vv, pf (1863):
Ved havet [At the Sea] (Welhaven), Kein Wort und keinen Hauch (M. Harmann), Fuglekvidder [Bird Warbling] (C. Richardt), Barcarole (J.L. Heiberg)

Instrumental:

Piano:
for 2 hands unless otherwise stated
Intermezzo and Springdance, in Album for piano (Christiania, 1852), as op.27 (Berlin, c1870);
3 pieces, op.4 (1857);
Bondedans [Farmer’s Dance], ed. N. Grinde (Oslo, 1961) [orig. in op.4];
6 Sketches, op.7 (1860);
[6] New Sketches, op.12 (1863);
Polonaise, 4 hands, op.13 (1864);
March, 4 hands, op.21 (1869);
Rondino, 4 hands, op.22 (1869);
4 pieces, op.24 (1871);
Scherzo, op.29 (Christiania, c1870)

Arrs.:
25 udvalgte norske folkedandse (1861);
Norske folkeviser (Christiania, 1867)
Impromptus, sketches and other pieces

Font: En català: Halfdan Kjerulf (1815-1868) En castellano: Halfdan Kjerulf (1815-1868) In english: Halfdan Kjerulf (1815-1868) - Altres: Halfdan Kjerulf (1815-1868)



Parlem en veu pròpia o en veu d'altri...

Poques seran les paraules en primera persona que podré aportar a l'entorn d'aquest, si més no personalment, desconegut autor noruec. Per tant, i 200 anys després del seu naixement, serà l'enciclopèdica Grove la que us podrà il·lustrar amb major consistència. Ara bé, el meu cor si us recitarà, amb apassionat èmfasi, que aquest recull de cançons m'han semblat meravelloses i d'un romanticisme èpic!

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Most of Kjerulf’s works were composed after his studies in Copenhagen and Leipzig. He wrote no symphonic music, but restricted his output to smaller forms, of which his songs (about 130) are the most important, both for their intrinsic merit and for their place in the development of Norwegian music. In them influence of lieder by Schubert and Schumann is evident, as is that of folk music, which Kjerulf knew well from published collections and from his travels in Norway. His settings include Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, German and French texts, and the poets include his younger brother Theodor as well as King Carl XV. Inevitably the folk influence is strongest in the Norwegian songs, especially in those set to poems by the nationalist writer Bjørnsterne Bjørnson. The flavour of folk melody is obvious in Synnøves sang (‘Synnøve’s Song’) op.6 no.3 and Aftenstemning (‘Evening Mood’) op.14 no.1, and Ingrids vise (‘Ingrid’s Song’) op.6 no.4 is rhythmically and melodically modelled after the springdans, a characteristic Norwegian folkdance. The first phrase of Ingrid’s Song(ex.1) shows the springdans rhythm with its accent on the second beat of the bar; the use of the open 5th pedal point is also a characteristic borrowed from folk music. In such other songs as Lokkende toner (‘Enticing Sounds’) op.3 no.6 and Hvile i skoven (‘Rest in the Woods’) op.5 no.3, both to texts by J.S. Welhaven, the specific features of folk music are less prominent, but the basic Norwegian atmosphere is still perceptible.

Kjerulf’s songs are usually composed in simple or varied strophic form. In only a few examples, such as Du kommer (‘You are Coming’) op.17 no.3, does the extent of strophic variation approach Durchkomponierung and nearly all the songs that have a folk musical colouring are simple in structure, a natural consequence of their close relation to the ubiquitous strophic style of Norwegian folksong. Kjerulf generally allowed the voice a certain predominance over the piano part, which is nevertheless carefully worked out and often has an independent prelude, interlude and postlude. The accompaniment normally depicts the general atmosphere of the text by simple means, but in the more elaborate songs it may also reflect the poem’s changing moods. In his finest songs Kjerulf achieved an artistic fusion of text and music equal to the masterworks of European Romanticism. Kjerulf’s compositions for male chorus were the direct result of his conducting activities and the first products of his artistic maturity; two of the best-known, Solvirkning (‘Sun’s Effect’) and Brudefaerden i Hardanger (‘The Bridal Procession in Hardanger’), were written before 1849. In addition to about 40 original compositions, he made about 60 arrangements of his own compositions, folksongs and other songs, which occupy an important place in the Norwegian choral repertory.

A third important group of Kjerulf’s compositions, his piano works, consists largely of Romantic character pieces, such as the Wiegenlied from op.4 and the Berceuse and Caprice from New Sketches op.12. They are carefully worked out and expressive compositions, but are less interesting than the two volumes of folk arrangements, especially the 25 udvalgte norske folkedandse (1861), some of which point towards Grieg’s slåtter arrangements in his op.72. Such pieces as Hildalshalling and Brureslått from the 1861 collection transform folkdances into a convincing artistic form, and show both effective writing for the piano and a bold treatment of harmony. The strong discord at the beginning of the last bar of the passage from Brureslått (ex.2) is probably unique in Norwegian music of that period, consisting of a French 6th chord over an A pedal point. Another striking use of dissonance showing the influence of folk music occurs at the beginning of Bondedans (‘Farmer’s Dance’), which originally belonged to op.4, but was not printed in that volume probably because the style seemed too bold to the publisher (ex.3). The dissonance in the opening chord results from a tonic pedal point played with two notes of the dominant triad. In the same example, the melodic construction of two-bar motifs is another element taken from folk music.

Kjerulf also composed 20 songs and arrangements for mixed chorus, 11 vocal duets and some songs for vocal ensembles (trios and quartets). His works for larger forces include music for comic opera, Søkadetterne iland (‘Midshipmen in Port’), and a polonaise for a carnival of 1863 (both orchestrated by the conductor Paolo Sperati). As already demonstrated, some of Kjerulf’s compositions are clearly founded on a Norwegian folk style. In other works the currents of German Romanticism and Norwegian folk music are more nearly fused, and Kjerulf created a stylistic synthesis of the two, but this dualism, controlled by a cultured and self-critical musical intellect, permeates his entire output and is its most prominent characteristic. He virtually created the Norwegian art song with his outstanding single achievement, the transplanting of the German lied to Norwegian soil, and laid the groundwork for Grieg and his successors.

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