dimarts, 26 de juliol de 2016

400 anys després, celebrem i commemorem els desconeguts

Eustache Le Sueur - Polyphilus and Polia accompanied by nymphs on island of Cythera
Obra d'Eustache Le Sueur (1616-1655), pintor francès (1)



- 400è aniversari de compositors a qui difícilment escoltarem -
Special thanks to my friend 'Tassos' for composers portraits



Parlem de Pintura...

Eustache Le Sueur (Paris, 19 de novembre de 1616 - Paris, 30 d'abril de 1655) va ser un pintor francès i un dels fundadors de l'Acadèmia de Belles Arts de França. Fill de Cathelin Le Sueur, un escultor, es va formar amb Simon Vouet. En els seus inicis va ser un pintor barroc si bé ràpidament, i en sintonia amb el seu col·lega i rival francès Poussin, va adoptar el classicisme tot i que en la variant coneguda amb el nom d'aticisme. Se'l va conèixer també amb el nom del 'Rafael francès'. Va viure la seva curta existència a París, ciutat on va treballar intensament deixant un llegat ingent d'obres majoritàriament religioses. Va morir a París l'abril de 1655.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Eustache Le Sueur (1616-1655) In english: Eustache Le Sueur (1616-1655) - Altres: Eustache Le Sueur (1616-1655)



Parlem de Música...

Sebastian Alfonso (Echo, 1616 - Zaragoza, 1692) va ser un compositor aragonès.

En 1637 se le encuentra como Maestro de Capilla en la Catedral de Albarracín, para pasar en 1641 a ocupar el mismo puesto en la de Huesca hasta 1653. En este tiempo optó por oposición a Maestro en la Catedral de Zaragoza, sin conseguirlo. De 1655 a 1656 ejerció su labor en la Catedral de Cuenca, para obtener finalmente la plaza en Zaragoza por decisión del Cabildo Catedralicio, hasta su renuncia en 1687 debido a la vejez. Fue un compositor variado, más cercano a la tradicional música polifónica que a las nuevas corrientes de la época. Entre sus piezas, destacan los romances y villancicos, sin faltar las obligadas misas y motetes. En su honor se creó el año 2007 en su ciudad natal de Echo, Huesca, la “Capilla de Música Sebastián Alfonso”.

OBRA:

Misas;
Motetes;
Villancicos;
Romances;

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Sebastian Alfonso (1616-1692) In english: No disponible - Altres: Sebastian Alfonso (1616-1692)



Gemignano Capilupi (Modena, bap. 22 de febrer de 1573 - Modena, 31 d'agost de 1616) va ser un compositor italià.

Nació Lovetti pero cambió su apellido a Capilupi. Fue alumno de Orazio Vecchi y cantó en la Catedral de Módena desde 1593 a 1602. Llegó a vivir dominado por la rivalidad y, habiendo proyectado allí el despido de Orazio Vecchi del puesto de maestro di cappella, lo sucedió en octubre de 1604. Cuando Vecchi murió el año siguiente Capilupi lo sucedió también  como director musical del Duque de Módena. Renunció a su puesto catedralicio el 15 de octubre de 1614. Además de madrigales y canzonetas, su producción incluye motetes de gran potencia que se encuentran en el límite entre los viejos y nuevos estilos de la época. Por ejemplo, los publicados en 1603 no tienen ningún bajo figurado y todavía tienen entradas imitativas y fragmentos de plainsong en piezas para doble coro, pero hay también repeticiones estructurales y excitante escrituta antifonal muy semejante al estilo de la "Sacrae symphoniae" de 1597 de Giovanni Gabrieli. La colección de 1603 es poco común en el sentido de atribuir muchos de los motetes a fiestas específicas o a puntos específicos de la misa.

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Italian composer. He was born Lovetti but changed his name to Capilupi. He was a pupil of Orazio Vecchi and sang at Modena Cathedral from 1593 to 1602. He became consumed with rivalry and, having engineered Vecchi's dismissal from the post of maestro di cappella there, succeeded him in October 1604. When Vecchi died the following year Capilupi also succeeded him as musical director to the Duke of Modena. He resigned his cathedral post on 15 October 1614. Besides madrigals and canzonets, his output includes large-scale motets which stand on the borderline between the old and new styles of the day. For instance, those published in 1603 have no figured bass and still have imitative entries and fragments of plainsong in double-choir pieces, but there are also structural repetitions and exciting antiphonal writing very much in the style of Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae of 1597. The collection of 1603 is unusual in ascribing many of the motets either to specific feasts or to specific points in the Mass.

OBRA:

Il primo libro de madrigali, 5vv (Venice, 1599)
Motectorum, 6, 8vv, liber primus (Venice, 1603)
Il secondo libro de madrigali, 5vv (Venice, 1608)
Concerti ecclesiastici, 8–9, 12–13vv, bc, ed. P. Bravusi (Venice, 1621)
16 canzonets in 1597;
4 motets in 1597, 1600, 1621;
5 madrigals in 1604, 1616;
3 mascheratas in 1601

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Gemignano Capilupi (1573-1616) In english: Gemignano Capilupi (1573-1616) - Altres: Gemignano Capilupi (1573-1616)



Giuseppe Cenci (c.1550 - Roma, 21 de juny de 1616) va ser un cantant i compositor italià.

Su verdadero nombre era Giuseppe Cenci, tenor y entretenedor de Bolonia que cantaba sus propias canciones y tocaba el arpa judía y la tiorba. Se atribuyen 12 monodias a ‘Giuseppino' en manuscritos copiados en Roma y (uno) en Florencia. En 1628 Vincenzo Giustiniani acreditó a ‘Giuseppino', junto con Giulio Caccini, con el descubrimiento o refinamiento del estilo recitativo. En 1640 Pietro della Valle describía el canto de un tenor llamado 'Giuseppino', colocando su actividad entre 1590 y 1600 y diciendo que compuso un gran número de canzonettas populares con palabras escandalosas. En 1635 G. B. Doni informaba que ‘Giuseppe Cenci detto Giuseppino' había sido admitido como tenor en la capilla papal en 1598. Los diarios de la Capilla Sixtina dejan claro que estuvo al servicio del Cardenal Odoardo Farnese (1573-1626), hermano de Rinuccio I, duque de Parma, desde por lo menos 1598 hasta 1608, cuando aparentemente fue transferido al servicio del Cardenal Scipione Borghe, sobrino del Papa Paulo V. En 1614 ‘Giuseppino' contribuyó con un aria al pasticho ópera "Amor pudico", que celebró el segundo matrimonio de Michele Peretti,  hermano del cardenal Montalto. Le enfermedad crónica que llevó a Cenci a la muerte parece haber empezado en la primavera de 1614.

Esto puede explicar por qué no cantó en “Amor pudico” (1614) a pesar de que una de sus arias fue usada y, por lo tanto, por qué no es mencionado en la descripción impresa después del evento. En un documento se lee que el “Sig. Giuseppe Cenci pasó a mejor vida cuarenta minutos después de la puesta del sol, como atesta el Capitán Severino”, y fue enterrado al día siguiente en San Lorenzo in Damaso (iglesia titular de la familia Montalto).El 11 de julio de 1616 Enzo Bentivoglio en Ferrara supo a través de su agente romano que ‘Iosepino ha muerto, esto es, el músico'. De hecho, el 21 de junio de 1616 Giuseppe Cenci había muerto. El libro de la parroquia donde murió y el de la parroquia donde fue enterrado se refieren a él como ‘Giuseppino Cenci'. Parece razonable concluir, por consiguiente, que ‘Giuseppino' era Giuseppe Cenci. Por consiguiente pueden agregarse tres obras publicadas bajo el nombre de Cenci  a la lista de obras, llevando el total a 15. Siete de estas obras son variaciones estróficas, cuatro madrigales solos, dos diálogos, una  canzonetta estrófica y un dúo estrófico. Los más puramente recitativos son el diálogo "Perche non togli o Clori i pesci ai fiumi" y el madrigal "Occhi ch'alla mia vita"; el último se publicó en una versión de cuatro partes en el Op 10 de P. M. Marsolo (1614) junto con otros dos madrigales, "Ahi com'a un vago sol" y "Occhi un tempo mia vita". En varias piezas, por ejemplo en las variaciones estróficas "Io che l'età solea viver nel fango" y en "Anima bella che nel sen ten stai", el estilo recitativo alterna con el estilo de aria métrica.

La canzonetta "Fuggi, fuggi, fuggi da questo cielo" llegó a ser conocida como el "Aria di Mantova" a través de los tratamientos de sonata de Biagio Marini y Marco Uccellini. Esta pieza, llamada también "La mantovana", apareció impresa por primera vez en la colección de madrigales de Giuseppino de 1600 y se hizo popular a lo largo de Europa. La melodía, más tarde conocida también como "Ballo di Mantova" o "Aria di Mantova" ha sido usada para la escocesa “My mistress is prettie,” la polaca “Pod Krakowem,” la española "Virgen de la Cueva" y la ucraniana “Kateryna Kucheryava”. Fue usada después por Bedric Smetana como tema principal de su poema sinfónico "El Moldava"; además la música fue adaptada al poema de Naftali Imber para el himno nacional de Israel "Hatikvah". Uno de los madrigales solos de Cenci, "Deh dolc'anima mia" está en un texto de "Il pastor fido" de Guarini y se puede haber interpretado, junto con varias otras piezas recitativos de textos de la misma pastoral que se encuentra anónimamente junto a las de Cenci, cuando la obra se presentó en una villa rural de su patrón, el cardenal Farnese, en 1596. En ese caso, esto ayudaría a probar la afirmación de Giustiniani de que Cenci jugó un papel principal en la introducción del recitativo teatral. El dúo estrófico de Cenci "Più non amo più non ardo" y sus variaciones estróficas solas "Se perché voi mi tolga" fueron incluidos en "Raccolta de varii concerti musicali" de G. B. Robletti (Roma, 1621) y sus variaciones estróficas "Vita della mia vita" en "Le risonanti sfere" de Robletti (1629). De las obras restantes, "Dunque Clorida mia", "Leggiadri occhi sereni" y "Se'l dolce sguardo", todas son variaciones estróficas; "Amorosa Licori", un diálogo, apareció anónimamente en "Il maggio fiorito" (1623).

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12 monodies are ascribed to ‘Giuseppino’ in manuscripts copied in Rome and (one) in Florence. In 1628 Vincenzo Giustiniani credited ‘Giuseppino’, along with Giulio Caccini, with the discovery or refinement of recitative style. In 1640 Pietro della Valle described the singing of a tenor named Giuseppino, placing his activity c1590–1600 and saying that he composed a large number of popular canzonettas with scandalous words. In 1635 G.B. Doni reported that ‘Giuseppe Cenci detto Giuseppino’ was admitted as a tenor to the papal chapel in 1598, and in 1614 ‘Giuseppino’ contributed an aria to the pastiche opera Amor pudico, which celebrated the second marriage of Michele Peretti, brother of Cardinal Montalto. On 11 July 1616 Enzo Bentivoglio in Ferrara heard from his Roman agent that ‘Iosepino is dead, that is, the musician’. And, indeed, on 21 June 1616 Giuseppe Cenci had died. The book of the parish where he died and that of the parish where he was buried refer to him as ‘Giuseppino Cenci’. It seems reasonable to conclude, therefore, that ‘Giuseppino’ was Giuseppe Cenci, a tenor who entered the papal chapel in 1598. At the time of his admission he was in the service of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese; in 1608 he transferred to the household of Cardinal Scipione Borghese, nephew of Pope Paul V. Three works published under Cenci’s name may therefore be added to the work-list, bringing the total to 15.

Seven of these works are strophic variations, four solo madrigals, two dialogues, one a strophic canzonetta and one a strophic duet. The most purely recitational are the dialogue Perche non togli o Clori i pesci ai fiumi (in I-Baf and Vc) and the madrigal Occhi ch’alla mia vita (I-Bc); the latter was published in a four-part version in P.M. Marsolo’s op.10 (1614) along with two other madrigals, Ahi com’a un vago sol (as a solo in US-PHu) and Occhi un tempo mia vita (as a solo in I-Bc). In several works, for example the strophic variations Io che l’età solea viver nel fango and Anima bella che nel sen ten stai (both in I-Baf and Vc), recitational style alternates with metrical aria style. The canzonetta Fuggi, fuggi, fuggi da questo cielo (in I-Fc; printed by Ghisi, p.58, and Aldrich, pp.180–81) became known as the Aria di Mantova through sonata treatments by Biagio Marini and Marco Uccellini. Its melody was used for a popular noël in 18th-century France, and it eventually emerged as the principal theme of Smetana’s Vltava. One of Cenci’s solo madrigals, Deh dolc’anima mia (in I-Vc) is on a text from Guarini’s Il pastor fido and may have been performed, along with several other recitational settings of texts from the same pastorale which are found anonymously alongside Cenci’s, when the play was staged at a country villa of his patron, Cardinal Farnese, in 1596. If so, this would help to substantiate Giustiniani’s claim that Cenci played a leading role in the introduction of theatrical recitative.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Giuseppe Cenci (c.1550-1616) In english: Giuseppe Cenci (c.1550-1616) - Altres: No disponible



Bartolomeo Faveretto (Padua, c.1550 - Padua?, 1616) va ser un compositor italià.

Italian composer, maestro di cappella and instrumentalist. He was a priest. A document dated 7 March 1595 shows that he was a trombone player at S Antonio, Padua. In the same year he was appointed for three years from 1 May as a trombonist in the chapel of Padua Cathedral, and this position was renewed in 1598. He was maestro di cappella at Montagnana, following Lucrezio Venturo, from 14 October 1600 to 24 August 1603; he was succeeded by Vincenzo Neriti. He maintained connections, during this period, with the chapel of Padua Cathedral and had occasional engagements there. On 21 February 1602 he had returned to the cathedral as a chorister. On 21 November 1602 he obtained a papal brève which allowed him to receive his salary while out of residence, and on 6 July 1606 he was appointed for six years as assistant maestro in succession to Lelio Bertani ‘on the condition that he cannot ask an increase during those six years, and that the canons are free to appoint another maestro if they can find one better [than Faveretto]’. His conduct was presumably satisfactory since on 8 August 1609 he was appointed maestro for six years as from 6 July 1610. In 1612 during Holy Week he brought to Montagnana some singers from the chapel of Padua Cathedral. Since the chapter decided to seek another maestro on 26 July 1616 it may be assumed that Faveretto died shortly before that date. The final notice of him is dated 20 January 1616 when he was awarded expenses for the binding of books and for transporting instruments. He contributed two madrigals, Amor se leghi and Ma desio ben ch'accenda, to the collection Laudi d'amore (RISM 15987) and was the composer of Laude spirituali nella Assontione della gloriosa Vergine (RISM 16049), for four voices. One of his compositions also appears in Giulio Radino's Concerti per sonare et cantare (16078). A set of Madrigali, laudi spirituali for two to four voices by him is advertised in Vincenti's trade lists of 1621 and 1635 (MischiatiI VII:51; VIII:72; may refer to 1604).

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Matthia Ferrabosco (Bologna, bap. 16 de juliol de 1550 - Graz, bur. 23 de febrer de 1616) va ser un cantant i compositor italià.

Italian singer and composer, almost certainly a brother of (3) Costantino Ferrabosco. His father was Ercole Ferrabosco. On 1 September 1581 he became a member of the court chapel of Archduke Karl at Graz; he served there in one capacity or another for 35 years. He came to the court as an alto singer, but his duties after 1588 also included that of teacher of the choirboys. Three of the latter, Cividino, Jelich and Simonetti, were to achieve some renown as musicians. On the death of the archduke in July 1590, the chapel was much reduced, but Matthia was retained, and was engaged by Karl’s widow to teach her sons Maximilian and Leopold. In 1603 Matthia was made Undter-Capelmaister, and Pietro Bianco his superior attested to his ‘pious, upright, industrious, and artistically accomplished service’. He travelled with the chapel when it went to Regensburg and Vienna. Among his duties was the purchasing of instruments; in this capacity he bought from Nuremberg in 1607 ten trombones and 12 trumpets, and also bought music from Venice. Upon the death of Bianco in 1611, he became an administrative officer, but the post of Kapellmeister was left vacant for three years; it was eventually awarded to the (much younger) Giovanni Priuli. After Matthia’s death, his widow Catharina successfully petitioned Archduke Ferdinand for a settlement in recognition of her husband’s long service, and received the generous sum of 600 florins; this was followed in the next year by the 77 florins still outstanding for her husband’s instruction of the choirboys and repair of instruments. There is no record of Matthia as a composer of sacred music; his extant works comprise two villanellas in L. Torti’s Il secondo libro delle canzoni a tre voci (Venice, 158410) and 22 canzonettas in Canzonette a quatro voci (Venice, 1585; two are included in DTÖ, xc, 1954). It is clear that he was no innovator. The two villanellas are in the standard AABCC form, and are basically homophonic with syllabic declamation. The Canzonette, constituting a logical development of the villanella style, show heightened polyphonic interest and convincing attempts at madrigalian word-painting. Adrian Denss chose nine of the canzonettas to appear in his Florilegium (159419), but a ‘Gagliarda Ferabosci’ in the same collection (f.77) cannot reliably be assigned to Matthia.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Matthia Ferrabosco (1550-1616) - Altres: No disponible



Georg Leopold Fuhrmann (Nürnberg, 2 de març de 1574 - Nürnberg, 10 de desembre de 1616) va ser un editor, gravador, llaütista i compositor alemany.

German publisher, bookseller, engraver, editor and lutenist. According to the foreword of his Testudo gallo-germanica Fuhrmann attended ‘German and French high schools and universities’; there are records of him studying in Jena (1597), Marburg (1599), Tübingen (1601) and Basel (1604), where he received a broad education. He then worked in Nuremberg, where in 1608 he took over the typographical workshop of his father, Valentin, who had published mathematical and theological works and was also known for publishing music and theoretical works. Composers whose music was published by Fuhrmann include Melchior Franck, J.A. Herbst and Demantius. For musicians Fuhrmann is of particular interest for his anthology of lute music Testudo gallo-germanica, hoc est: novae et nunquam antehac editae recreationes musicae, ad testudinis asum et tabulaturam (RISM 161524/R1975, published in Nuremberg). It comprises 180 pages and includes a German translation of Anthoine Francisque’s Instruction pour réduire toutes sortes de tablatures de luth en musique et réciproquement. The music, which is for nine-course lute in G, spans the entire continental, as well as the English, repertory of the period and is therefore one of the most important sources of lute music of the early 17th century (some pieces ed. A. Quadt in Aus Tabulaturen des 16.–18. Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1966, 6/1990), Lautenmusik aus der Renaissance, i (Leipzig, 1968) and in Boetticher). There are pieces by English composers such as John and Robert Dowland, several lesser-known Italians, French composers such as Charles Bocquet, Poles, and particularly Germans, among them Elias Mertel, Valentin Strobel (ii), Georg Wesper and Hans Leo Hassler, who had worked in Nuremberg and who is represented by 20 pieces, a larger number than any other composer. The collection, which is in French lute tablature, offers a cross-section of current forms and there is a high proportion of arrangements of vocal models. Fuhrmann himself played here a prominent role as intabulator.

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Georg Leopold Fuhrmann (1574-1616) - Altres: Georg Leopold Fuhrmann (1574-1616)



Konrad Hagius (Rinteln, 1550 - Rinteln, setembre de 1616) va ser un cantant i compositor alemany.

He led a restless life that took him to many parts of Europe in the service of both Protestant and Catholic masters. He is first heard of in 1581–2, when he applied to be a bass in the Protestant Stuttgart Hofkapelle. In 1584 he is mentioned as court composer to Count Ezard II of East Friesland at Emden. In that year he also applied for the post of ‘Sangmeister’ at the Reformed Grote Kerke there, though he seems not to have secured a permanent position. From 1586 until the early 1590s Hagius was employed by the Catholic Duke Johann Wilhelm of Jülich at Düsseldorf. It was there that in 1589 he published his setting of Kaspar Ulenberg’s psalter, composed in close collaboration with the author. Later he seems to have travelled widely through Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Prussia and Lithuania, although only his publications in Danzig and Thorn in 1594 and his application for a post at the court of Count Simon zu Lippe at Detmold in 1596 provide evidence of this. There are grounds for believing that a portrait of him, which was the source of the woodcut in his prints of 1604 and 1616 (reproduced in MGG1), was painted in Poland in 1595. From November 1600 to June 1603 he sang bass in the Stuttgart Hofkapelle. In 1604 he described himself on the title-page of his Newe deutsche Tricinien as a musician to the Elector Palatine at Heidelberg.

In 1606 he dedicated the second edition of his psalter to the Archbishop and Elector of Mainz and published from Mainz a book of Magnificat settings for the Catholic rite, which he dedicated to Marcus and Christoph Fugger. From November 1607 he was again a bass in the Stuttgart Hofkapelle until in February 1609 he was dismissed because he was a papist. Later that year Count Ernst III of Holstein-Schauenburg and Sternberg, who did much for the arts, summoned him to set up a musical establishment at his Reformed court at Bückeburg and appointed him Kapellmeister. He was, however, getting on in years and apparently found his administrative duties irksome, so in 1611 he was allowed to return to his native town on condition that he composed something for the court every year. At the baptism of a son on 23 September 1616 he is referred to as having already died. Konrad Hagius belongs to a group of late 16th-century German composers in whose work traces of several traditions may be discerned, notably the Lutheran, Flemish and Italian. The few compositions by him available in modern editions are expressive pieces in a madrigalian manner, tightly knit and sensitively underlaid. The Ulenberg Psalter, which he wrote ‘for young people’, is mainly in a simple and attractive note-against-note style that made it suitable for everyday use in Catholic schools and churches; for educational reasons it also includes a few simple polyphonic pieces.

OBRA:

Die Psalmen Davids … durch den Herrn Casparum Ulenbergium in Truck verfertigt, 4vv (Düsseldorf, 1589, enlarged 1606); ed. in DRM, iii (1955)
Glückwünschung: zu einem glückseligen Eingang des 94. Jahrs, 5vv (Thorn, 1594)
Newe deutsche Tricinien, 3vv (Frankfurt, 1604)
Canticum virginis intemeratae Magnificat, 4–6vv (Dillingen, 1606); 1 Magnificat, Ps. cxvii, ed. M. Seiffert, Musik am Hofe des Grafen Ernst, 1601–1622 (Bückeburg and Leipzig, 1922)
Ander Theil newer teutscher Tricinien … neben andern hinzu gesetzten Gesängen, 4–6vv, auch etlichen Fugen und Canonen, 2–6vv (Frankfurt, 1610), lost
Erster Theil etlicher teutscher geistlicher Psalmen und Gesänge, 4–6vv (Frankfurt, 1612)
Erster Theil newer teutscher Gesäng, 2–8vv (Frankfurt, 1614), lost
15 works, 1616

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Konrad Hagius (1550-1616) - Altres: Konrad Hagius (1550-1616)



Heinrich Hartmann (Rehestädt, c.1580 - Coburg, bur. 3 d'octubre de 1616) va ser un compositor alemany.

At Jena University, where he matriculated in 1600, he was probably a pupil of Georg Quitschreiber. In 1607, or early in 1608 at the latest, he became, according to a contemporary document, Kantor of ‘the church and school at Coburg’, where he remained until his death. Here he worked alongside Melchior Franck and Benedikt Faber, with both of whom he published occasional works. His two-part collection of motets (1613–17) contains 49 settings in German of psalms, psalm verses and other biblical texts and of hymns both old and new. As well as 13 five-part, 13 six-part and two ten-part motets, there are as many as 21 eight-part ones, for double choir, a type of texture for which Hartmann clearly had a special liking; he also adopted it in most of his occasional works. He combined contrapuntal and chordal writing to produce naively attractive sonorities. Two conservative elements in his music are his use of madrigalian devices to highlight the words and the absence of continuo parts.

OBRA:

Edition: H. Hartmann: Vier deutsche Motetten zu 6 und 8 Stimmen, ed. A. Adrio, Cw, xcviii (1965) [with important preface]

Cantio gratulatoria (Zion spricht ach mein Herr und Gott) … Zu Ehren … Valentin Linden, 6vv (Jena, 1606)
Hochzeitlicher Gesang (Ein frommes Weib) zu Ehren … Gottschalck Peselern Und … Barbarae … Kretzschmers, 8vv (Jena, 1609)
Erster Teil: Confortativae sacrae symphoniacae, 5, 6, 8 and more vv (Coburg, 1613, 2/Erfurt, 1618)
Ander Teil (Erfurt, 1617)
Wedding motet, Ein schöne Frau erfreuet ihren Mann, 8vv (Coburg, 1615)
2 wedding motets, 8vv, 1611;
1 wedding motet in M. Franck: Concentus musicales in nuptias, 8vv (Coburg, 1613);
1 wedding motet, 6vv in M. Franck: Zwei neue Hochzeit Gesäng (Coburg, 1616);
1 motet, Jesus discipulis suis, 6vv, 1617;
1 motet, 8vv, 1618;
1 motet, Lobe den Herren, meine Seele, 8vv, 1621;
2 parody masses, 5vv, bc, in C. Vincentius: Missae ad praecipuos dies festos accomodatae (Erfurt, 1630);
2 songs, 2 motets in Cantionale sacrum I, II (Gotha, 1646, 1648)
MSS of motets, incl. many from Confortativae sacrae symphoniacae, D-Bsb, Dl, Rp, W, Z, PL-WRu

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Heinrich Hartmann (c.1580-1616) - Altres: Heinrich Hartmann (c.1580-1616)



William Holder (Southwell, 1616 - Hertford, 24 de gener de 1698) va ser un matemàtic i compositor anglès.


English clergyman, mathematician and musician. He entered Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1633, receiving the BA degree in 1636 and the MA four years later. He was a Fellow of the college from 1640 to 1642, although he was ordained deacon of Lincoln Cathedral in 1640 and probably held a number of other livings as well. During the Civil War he moved to Oxford; he was also installed as a canon of Ely Cathedral, though he did not take up his appointment there until the Restoration. He became a Doctor of Divinity of Oxford University in 1660, and for his theoretical work on speech and music was elected a Fellow of the recently founded Royal Society in 1663. On 16 October 1672 he was made a canon of St Paul's Cathedral and on 2 September 1674 was appointed sub-dean of the Chapel Royal. In his execution of the duties of this office he was an advocate of strict rule, and his iron discipline in the conduct of services earned him the nickname of ‘Mr Snub-Dean’ from Michael Wise. He was married to Susanna, the sister of Sir Christopher Wren. Holder had a considerable influence in the education of Wren. Both Holder and his wife are buried in the crypt of St Paul's. Their son, also named William, was a chorister in the Chapel Royal. Holder's church music is of little account, but it shows that although he was an amateur musician he was no mere sciolist and could compose in the Restoration idiom with fluency and competence, if with little individuality.

Ten anthems and an Evening Service in C survive (GB-Cu, Lbl Harl. 7338–9). His Treatise on the Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmony, apparently written primarily for the instruction of members of the Chapel Royal choir, was censured by North for its obscurity and praised by Burney and Hawkins for its clarity, though North may be considered biassed in the matter, since he regarded Holder's work as being no more than an offshoot of his brother Francis's Philosophical Essay. Hawkins quotes from Holder's treatise and accounts for Holder's influence on the 18th-century theorist, Alexander Malcolm. Holder's originality in his Treatise lies in his explanations of the physics and acoustics of music, making a link with Galileo's isochronism theory of the pendulum. In 1659 Holder became widely known as the speech teacher of a deaf-mute named Alexander Popham. His Elements of Speech was published ten years later. However, it is for the Treatise that Holder will be chiefly remembered; its preoccupation with the physical basis of music is typical of the growing spirit of scientific inquiry of the period and of the Age of Reason that brought the arts as well as the sciences within the scope of such inquiry. Its remarks on mean-tone tuning are also of some value in any consideration of the tuning of keyboard instruments at the time.

OBRA:

‘An Account of an Experiment Concerning Deafness’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, xxxv (1668), 665–8
Elements of Speech (London, 1669/R)
A Treatise on the Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmony (London, 1693 [dated 1694], enlarged 2/1731 by G. Keller)
A Discourse Concerning Time (London, 1694)
Extracts from Holder's contributions to the Transactions of the Royal Society, GB-Lbl Add.4921
Letters, investigations of various scientific problems, Lbl Sloane 1388

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John Hutchinson (1616 - York?, c.1657) va ser un compositor anglès.

Muy escasa información existe sobre la vida de este músico de iglesia. Fue organista de Southwell Minster, Nottinghamshire, desde aproximadamente 1622 hasta por lo menos enero de 1634 (es mencionado en los registros de matrimonies de 1628 y en los registros de bautizos de enero de 1634). Probablemente puede haber sido el John Hutchinson que llegó a ser organista de York Minster el 24 de marzo de 1634 y permaneció allí hasta que los servicios de la catedral fueron interrumpidos por  el Long Parliament en 1646. Es poco probable que fuera hijo del organista Richard Hutchinson, como se ha sugerido algunas veces, puesto que cuando él nació su presunto padre habría tenido quince años.

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English cathedral musician and composer. He was organist of Southwell Minster from about 1622 until at least January 1634 (he is named in the 1628 marriage registers and in the baptismal registers for January 1634); he is likely to have been the John Hutchinson who became organist of York Minster on 24 March 1634 and remained there until cathedral services were interrupted by the Long Parliament in 1646. It is unlikely that he was the son of Richard Hutchinson, as has sometimes been suggested.

OBRA:

3 full anthems, GB-Cp, Cu, DRc, Lbl, LF, Mp, Y, US-BEm
8 verse anthems (1 with text only), GB-Cp, DRc, Lbl, LF, Mp

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: John Hutchinson (1616-c.1657) In english: John Hutchinson (1616-c.1657) - Altres: No disponible



Johann Erasmus Kindermann (Nuremberg, 29 de març de 1616 - Nuremberg, 14 d'abril de 1655) va ser un organista i compositor alemany.


Estudió música desde una edad temprana y su principal maestro fue Johann Staden. A los 15 años ya tenía un trabajo tocando en conciertos por la tarde del domingo en la Iglesia de Nuestra Señora (cantando bajo y violín). En 1634 o 1635 las autoridades de la ciudad concedieron a Kindermann el permiso y dinero para viajar a Italia para estudiar la nueva música. Nada se sabe de su estancia en Italia, pudo haber visitado Venecia al igual que varios otros compositores de Nuremberg (Hans Leo Hassler, Johann Philipp Krieger). En enero de 1636 el ayuntamiento ordenó a Kindermann volver a ocupar el puesto de segundo organista de la Frauenkirche. En 1640 fue contratado como organista en Schwäbisch-Hall, pero salió el mismo año para convertirse en organista de la Egidienkirche, la tercera posición más importante de su tipo en Nuremberg, después de San Sebald y San Lorenz. Kindermann permaneció en Nuremberg por el resto de su vida, se convirtió en uno de los músicos más famosos de la ciudad y su profesor más aclamado. Entre sus alumnos estaban Johann Agricola, Agustín Pfleger, y también Schwemmer y Georg Heinrich Gaspar Wecker, quienes enseñaron a la última generación de la escuela de Nuremberg, que incluyó a los hermanos Krieger y, sobre todo, Johann Pachelbel.

Kindermann también influyó en la difusión de la nueva música en Nuremberg y el sur de Alemania, la publicación no sólo de varias colecciones de su propia música, sino también obras de Giacomo Carissimi, Girolamo Frescobaldi y Tarquinio Merula. La mayoría de las obras sobrevivientes de Kindermann son piezas vocales que reflejan la transición de las formas más antiguas a un uso más moderno de las técnicas de concertato y bajo continuo y exploran una variedad de técnicas desde motetes para coro sin instrumentos a conciertos para voces solistas basados en los conciertos seccionales de Schutz, experimentos de recitativo y diálogo (algunos de los cuales se ven hasta en las últimas obras del Barroco -por ejemplo, mediante el uso de disonancias sin preparación en el recitativo “Dum carminibus tot” para tenor y bajo continuo). Unas doscientas canciones sobreviven, en diversos textos: música homofónica sobre breves textos poéticos, canciones para una o dos voces y bajo continuo con ritornelos instrumentales, etc. Varias piezas en manuscrito son importantes precursoras de cantatas de iglesia posteriores y pertenecen a la primera música vocal a gran escala de Nuremberg que muestra contrastantes entre los movimientos solistas y corales. De la música para teclado, “Harmonia Orgánica” (1645) es la colección más importante, no sólo en el sentido musical, sino también en la historia de la música impresa, ya que es quizás la más antigua música alemana grabada. Se compone de 25 piezas de contrapunto.

Los primeros catorce son preludios, de 15 a 20 compases de largo, sin presencia de lenguaje imitativo, cada una comenzando con todas las voces juntas. Los seis primeros abarcan todos los modos de la iglesia (Un preludio para los modos auténtico y plagal); los seis siguientes repiten esta serie transportada una quinta baja. El resto de las piezas de la colección se titulan fuga: Algunas son fugas genuinas y otras se basan en melodías corales y las utilizan en una variedad de maneras, a veces una frase responde a otra, otras veces la segunda frase se puede utilizar para un interludio, etc. Hay modelos que más tarde serían ampliamente utilizados por importantes compositores alemanes, sobre todo Johann Pachelbel y Johann Sebastian Bach. La música de cámara más importante de Kindermann es tal vez la colección “Canzoni, sonatae” (1653), que incluye uno de los primeros, si no el primer uso de scordatura en Alemania. Las piezas de la colección pueden ser vistas como precursoras de las obras de Heinrich von Biber, todas constan de varias secciones contrastantes, como en obras similares de Frescobaldi. Gran parte de la otra música de cámara, para instrumentos de viento y de cuerda, sigue el modelo de las piezas de Staden. También hay evidencia de la pérdida de algunas colecciones de música de cámara. Fue el compositor más importante de la escuela de Nuremberg en la primera mitad del siglo XVII.

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German composer and organist. His was the most imaginative and adventurous music written in Nuremberg in the 17th century: he adopted all possible means for the expressive setting of a text. He is important too in the teacher–pupil tradition in 17th-century Nuremberg that began with his teacher Johann Staden and continued through Kindermann to his foremost pupils Heinrich Schwemmer and Georg Caspar Wecker, who taught Johann Krieger and Johann Pachelbel. Kindermann probably attended one of the Nuremberg Latin schools, where he would have learnt singing and the rudiments of music. His lessons with Staden must have begun early, for at the age of 15 he was already receiving an annual salary of four gulden for participating in Sunday afternoon concerts at the Frauenkirche. His duties were to sing bass and play the violin (as he noted later in a letter), and he continued to do so until late in 1634 or early in 1635, when the city council gave him permission and money to visit Italy to study the new music at its source. Information about his stay in Italy is lacking. Like other Nuremberg composers before him (Hans Leo Hassler) and after him (Paul Hainlein and Johann Philipp Krieger) he probably went to Venice, where he could have studied with – or at least met – Monteverdi and Cavalli. He may also have known Carissimi, Frescobaldi and Merula, since he published music by them alongside works of his own. The Nuremberg council had given him two years leave of absence, but after about one year, in January 1636, they called him back to take the position of second organist at the Frauenkirche.

In 1640 Kindermann was briefly employed as organist at Schwäbisch-Hall at an annual salary of 100 gulden (as well as 12 bushels of wheat, six wagon loads of wood and free housing). A few weeks after his arrival in August, however, he informed the city council that he had ‘come down with a fever’ and requested that Georg Dretzel (i) be given the position in his stead, to which they agreed. Kindermann's ‘fever’ came on shortly after the death of the organist of the Egidienkirche, Nuremberg. This is the kind of position he must have been waiting for in Nuremberg, and, having been appointed to it, he remained in it for the rest of his life..\Frames/F003325.html; only two posts for musicians in Nuremberg were more important – those of organist of St Sebaldus and St Lorenz. Kindermann was much in demand as a teacher: not only Schwemmer and Wecker (as mentioned above) but also Johann Agricola and Augustin Pfleger were among his many pupils. His fame was apparently widespread, for W.C. Printz described him in his Historische Beschreibung, 1690, as ‘a very famous Nuremberg composer and musician in his day’. Kindermann's works exemplify many of the instrumental and vocal forms of his day. His instrumental music is specially noteworthy for being written with the characteristics of specific types of instrument in mind instead of being in a style adaptable to a variety of instruments and voices, as with many earlier composers. Harmonia organica has regard for the acoustical and technical possibilities of the organ, including an early German use of obbligato pedal, and is not adaptable to the clavier. This collection of 25 brief contrapuntal pieces, 14 of which are preludes in the seven authentic and seven plagal modes, includes a remarkable triple fugue on three chorale melodies. It is also important in the history of music printing, for along with Christian Michael's Tabulatura (1639, 2/1645) it is the last printed German organ tablature and among the earliest, if not the first, German music to be engraved. The 30 dance movements in a manuscript tablature that also includes works by Froberger, Martino Pesenti and Adam Krieger (D-Bsb) are arranged in the usual order of the keyboard suite of the time: allemande–courante–saraband.

The four parts of Deliciae studiosorum contain 126 pieces (headed ‘Symphonia’, ‘Sonata’, ‘Ritornello’, ‘Aria’, ‘Ballet’, ‘Intrada’, etc.) for three to five wind or string instruments; they are modelled on similar pieces by Johann Staden. The fourth instrumental collection, an early example of German violin music and a forerunner of Biber's sonatas, is Canzoni, sonatae, which contains 41 works for one to three violins, cello and continuo: 27 are designated ‘canzon’ and nine ‘sonata’, but consist of four or five short sections made independent by changes in tempo or metre, as in similar works by Frescobaldi and Massimiliano Neri. Unlike Deliciae studiosorum ten years earlier, Canzoni, sonatae is specifically conceived for violins and includes the use of scordatura, perhaps for the first time in Germany. Most of Kindermann's output consists of vocal works, which exemplify the transitional character of German music during his generation, when the basso continuo and the concertato style were generally being adopted. There are motets with and without continuo in Cantiones pathētikai and Musica catechetica. The first two and the fourth pieces in the latter collection are in the concertato style. However, Kindermann used this style more expertly in the four manuscript cantatas Wachet auf, Ich will singen, Lasset uns loben and Herr Gott, dich loben wir, which are among the earliest works in Nuremberg to show a contrast between choral and solo movements, a distinguishing trait of the cantata. Like Schütz's Kleine geistliche Concerten (1636–9) and the first two sets of Symphoniae sacrae (1629–47), Kindermann's many concertos for solo voices have a sectional structure, a contrapuntal texture and little repetition of the text: the first five works in Musicalische Friedens Seufftzer, the first eight in Concentus Salomonis and the manuscript works Turbabor sed non perturbabor and Befihl dem Herren are good examples.

An interesting experiment with recitative, not found again in Nuremberg until two generations later in the music of Johann and Johann Philipp Krieger, is a work for tenor and continuo, Dum tot carminibus, ‘in stylo recitativo’: the repeated notes and unprepared dissonance are striking departures from the motet-like melodic style of his other works and those of his teacher Johann Staden, although the work is far from the declamatory style of Monteverdi. Of Kindermann's several dialogues, Mosis Plag is significant for its recitative and contemplative choruses, which did not become common features of the German oratorio until much later. Unlike the songs of his Nuremberg contemporary S.T. Staden, only four of his songs are of the old type for four voices. The 22 strophic songs in Göttliche Liebesflamme are for soprano and continuo. The 177 songs for one to three voices in the three parts of Evangelische Schlussreimen are settings, largely homophonic, of brief poetic texts written by J.M. Dilherr as closing statements of his sermons. In his Opitianischer Orpheus and Musicalische Friedens Freud, which together contain 38 songs for one or two voices, continuo and, for the ritornellos, usually two violins, Kindermann introduced to Nuremberg the type of instrumentally accompanied song associated particularly with Heinrich Albert in which an instrumental ritornello separates each stanza of the text. Considering Nuremberg's conservative, bourgeois culture in the 17th century, it is surprising that Kindermann published four humorous works, three in Musicalischer Zeitvertreiber (RISM 16554) and one in Intermedium musico-politicum. One of them, a dialogue between two drunken soldiers, a Jew, and a peasant, is remarkable for the clever, simultaneous presentation of the four distinct characters by means of masterly counterpoint and an original approach to melody. Another of the four is remarkable for its title: In honorificabilitudinationibusque.

OBRA:
published in Nuremberg unless otherwise stated

Vocal:

Cantiones [pathētikai], hoc est Ad memoriam passionis … Jesu Christi (motets), 3, 4vv, bc (1639)
Friedens Clag (3 motets), 3vv, bc (1640)
Concentus Salomonis, das ist Geistliche Concerten auss dem Hohen Lied dess hebraïschen Königes Salomonis (Opitz), 2vv, 2 vn, bc (1642)
Dialogus, Mosis Plag, Sünders Klag, Christi Abtrag, 1–6vv, bc (1642)
[8] Musicalische Friedens Seufftzer, 3, 4vv, bc (1642)
Opitianischer Orpheus, das ist [13] Musicalischer Ergetzligkeiten (2 pts) (Opitz), 1, 2vv, 2 vn, vle/bn, bc (1642)
Dess Erlösers Christi, und sündigen Menschens heylsames Gespräch (dialogue, J.M. Dilherr), 7vv, bc (1643)
Musica catechetica, das ist Musicalischer Catechismus (12 motets), 5vv, bc (1643)
Lobgesang über den Frewdenreichen Geburtstag … Jesu Christi, 4vv, sampt 1 Sinfonia, a 4 (1647)
Musicalische Friedens Freud (14 strophic songs), 1, 2vv, 3 viols, bc (1650)
Eines Christglaubigen Bekenners Hertzens Seuffzere, 2vv, 3 viols, bc (1648)
Göttliche Liebesflamme, das ist Christliche Andachten, Gebet und Seufftzer (Dilherr), S, bc (1640, text only; 2/1651)
Erster Teil J.M. Dilherrns Evangelische Schlussreimen (3 pts), 1–3vv, bc (1652)

Occasional:
Sunt hostes, Momique, bonis crebraeque, T, T, 2 va, bc (1639) [wedding music];
Dum tot carminibus te lugent undique cives (L. Röselius) T ‘in stylo recitativo’ (1647), Was ist unser Lebensstand? (J.G. Schwingshärle), C or T, bc (1647) [both on the death of M. Lunssdörffer];
Von Gottes milder Vatters-Hand, 2vv (1650) [wedding-song];
Ich hab ein guten Kampff gekämpfft, 6vv (1651) [on the death of T. Peller];
Fahr hin, Gottfried, du Friedens Sohn, 4vv (1651) [on the death of G. Polycarp];
Ich hab ein guten Kampff gekämpfft, 1v, 4 viols, bc (1654) [on the death of A.C. von Rägnitz]

Cants.:
Wachet auf, 4vv, insts, ?USSR-KA;
Ich will singen, 5vv, insts, ?PL-WRu;
Lasset uns loben, 5vv, insts, D-F;
Herr Gott, dich loben wir, 6vv, insts, Bsb

Solo concs.:
Turbabor sed non perturbabor, 3vv, insts, Kl, S-Uu;
Befihl dem Herren, S, S, B, 2 vn, bc, D-Ngm
1 song in Intermedium musico-politicum (1643); at least 3 songs in 1655
Ach bleib bey uns Herr Jesu, 2vv [attrib. ‘J.E.K.’], in Das Jahr ist fortgelauffen (n.p., n.d.)
Nun wohlauf ihr meine Sinnen, inst acc. to song by G. Neumark, in Fortgepflanzter musicalisch-poetischer Lustwald (Jena, 1957)

Instrumental:

Deliciae studiosorum (4 pts), a 3–5, bc (1640–43)
Harmonia organica, in tabulaturam germanicam (5 pts) (1645)
[27] Canzoni, [9] sonatae (2 pts), 1–3 vn, vc, bc (1653)
30 suite movts, kbd, D-Bsb, ed. in HM, lxi (1950)

Lost:
Musicalische Felder- und Wälderfreund, lv, bc (1643);
Musicalische Herzentrost-Blümlein, lv, 2 b viols, bc (1643);
Frühlings und Sommer freud, lv, bc (1645);
Neu-verstimmte Violen Lust, 3 viols, bc (Frankfurt, 1652) [see Beughem];
Wer ist, der so vom Himmel kommt, 5vv, insts [see Schmidt]

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Johann Erasmus Kindermann (1616-1655) In english: Johann Erasmus Kindermann (1616-1655) - Altres: Johann Erasmus Kindermann (1616-1655)



Krzysztof Klabon (c.1550 - 1616) va ser un cantant i compositor polonès.

As a child he was a chorister at the court of King Zygmunt II Augustus at Kraków. On 6 January 1565 he was transferred to the group of instrumentalists at the royal chapel and there are records of his performing songs to the lute on festive occasions at court. In about 1576 he became director of the royal chapel, first under King Stefan Batory and then under Zygmunt III Wasa. He held this post until 1601 except between 1596 and 1598. It was because Zygmunt III increased the size of his chapel by appointing a number of outstanding Italian musicians that he had to give up his post: in 1596–8 he was replaced by Marenzio, and he was succeeded by G.C. Gabussi in 1601, after which he remained in charge of the Polish part of the chapel only. He accompanied the king on his travels to Sweden in 1593–4 and 1598. He is last heard of in 1616. It must be supposed that he himself composed the occasional pieces that he sang to the lute, but only one such work, to a text by Stanisław Grochowski, survives with music: Pieśni Kalliopy Slowieńskiey: na terażnieysze pod Byczyną zwycięstwo [Songs of the Slavonic Calliope: On the Recent Victory at Byczyna] (Kraków, 1588; ed. Z.M. Szweykowski, Muzyka w dawnym Krakowie, Kraków, 1964). It is a cycle of six songs, four of which are in dance rhythms and have simple homophonic textures, and the other two are metrical pieces. A few other celebratory songs sung by Klabon, to words by Jan Kochanowski, a leading poet of the time, were printed without music (In nuptias … Joanni de Zamoscio, 1583; Ephinicion … ad Stephanum Bathoreum, 1583). Klabon also composed sacred music: one work, the five-part Kyrie Paschale (ed. in AMP, xv, 1968, and MAP, ii, 1993), survives complete. It is based on the corresponding plainchant, treated both as cantus firmus and as a source of points of imitation. The coda, stated twice at the end of the composition, is notably ingenious and effective. Of another work, the Officium Sancta Maria, only the soprano part survives (in PL-Kk).

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Krzysztof Klabon (c.1550-1616) - Altres: Krzysztof Klabon (c.1550-1616)



Władysław Leszczyński (1616 - 1680) va ser un organista i compositor polonès.

Leszczyński urodził się w 1616 roku, prawdopodobnie w Krakowie lub okolicach. Na chrzcie otrzymał imię Aleksander. Wraz z ojcem, który wyzwolił się na czeladnika w krakowskim cechu malarzy, przeniósł się do Częstochowy, gdzie w 1623 roku Szymon/Izydor [?] Leszczyński po śmierci żony wstąpił do zakonu paulinów. W 1632 roku piętnastoletni Aleksander również przyjął habit zakonny otrzymując imię Władysław i 8 IX złożył śluby wieczyste. Od tego momentu datuje się jego długa i owocna działalność w kapeli jasnogórskiej, w której zdobył wykształcenie muzyczne (był organistą), a także podstawy warsztatu kompozytorskiego. Kierownictwo kapeli Leszczyński przejął prawdopodobnie w 1654 roku, po śmierci o. Michała Bojanowskiego, który kierował zespołem od 1640 roku. Podczas swojej długiej działalności o. Władysław zapisał się chlubnie w dziejach kapeli i całego klasztoru – wzbogacił repertuar zespołu swoimi kompozycjami, a także zgromadził pokaźny zbiór instrumentów muzycznych. Zmarł na Jasnej Górze wskutek apopleksji 24 IX 1680 roku. Niestety, niemal cały dorobek Leszczyńskiego zaginął po jego śmierci, głównie w wyniku pożaru, który miał miejsce w 1690 roku. Na Jasnej Górze przechowuje się obecnie tylko jeden rękopis (będący XVIII-wiecznym odpisem) zawierający kompozycję Leszczyńskiego – Mandatum novum. Uznanie, jakim artysta cieszył się za życia przyczyniło się do skopiowania części jego dorobku na potrzeby innych kapel. Wiemy, że muzykę Leszczyńskiego grano w kościele karmelitów w Krakowie na Piasku, mszę i dwa hymny paulińskiego kompozytora znajdujemy w zbiorach Kapituły Katedralnej na Wawelu, a szczególnie cenne z uwagi na swoją stylistykę dzieło – koncert kościelny Dixit Dominus – udało się odnaleźć w kolekcji muzykaliów należących niegdyś do kapeli pijarskiej w Podolińcu (dziś na terenie Słowacji).

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Joseph Lupo (Venezia, c.1537 - Richmond, bur. 23 d'abril de 1616) va ser un compositor italià

String player and composer, son of Ambrose Lupo and father of Thomas Lupo (i). He followed his brother into the musicians’ guild in Antwerp on 20 August 1557, but preceded him to London. He joined the court string consort in November 1563, and served until his death. He composed a beautiful five-part pavan based on Lassus’s Susanne un jour in GB-Lbl Eg.3665 and contributed a commendatory poem to John Mundy’s Songs and Psalmes (1594).

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Richard Reade (c.1555 - Oxford, 1616) va ser un cantant i compositor anglès.

Se desconocen sus orígenes y el lugar de su nacimiento. Tampoco es fidedigna la información sobre sus estudios musicales. Probablemente es el Richard Read que recibió el BMus de la Christ Church, Oxford, el 7 de julio de 1592. Anthony Wood escribió: ‘Richard Read, que había estudiado en la facultad de música durante 22 años, fue admitido el mismo día. Había compuesto ciertos Servicios de Iglesia y otros temas para instrumentos, que están esparcidos en varios libros' (Fasti oxoniensis, 1691). Desde 1588 a 1616 fue 'singigng-man' en la Christ Church; los libros de desembolsos del college contienen su firma junto a la de Matthew Holmes, copista de los Cambridge Consort Books, la fuente principal de su música instrumental. Su testamento, que incluyó el legado de una bass viol, fue abierto en Oxford el 5 de abril de 1617. La música de Reade para 'mixed consort' de violín, flauta dulce, laúd, cítara, bandurria y viola da gamba incluye varias piezas concebidas en términos de los instrumentos específicos que constituyeron este distintivo conjunto inglés. Hasta donde es posible hablar de sus obras supervivientes fragmentarias, están escritas atractivamente y ofrecen mucho juego antifonal entre los grupos de instrumentos, aunque les falta quizás la aptitud de sus cotrapartes de Allison y Bacheler.

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English singer and composer. He is probably the Richard Read who took the BMus from Christ Church, Oxford, on 7 July 1592. Anthony Wood wrote: ‘Richard Read, who had studied the musical faculty for 22 years, was admitted the same day. He hath composed certain Church Services, and other matters for instruments, which are scattered in several books’ (Fasti oxoniensis, 1691). From 1588 to 1616 he was a ‘singing-man’ at Christ Church; the college disbursement books contain his signature alongside that of Matthew Holmes, copyist of the Cambridge Consort Books (GB-Cu), the principal source of his instrumental music. His will, which included the bequest of a bass viol, was proved at Oxford on 5 April 1617. Reade's music for mixed consort of violin, recorder, lute, cittern, bandora and bass viol includes several pieces conceived in terms of the specific instruments which made up this distinctive English ensemble. So far as it is possible to tell from their fragmentary surviving state, they are engagingly written, featuring much antiphonal play between groups of instruments, though they perhaps lack the flair of their counterparts by Allison and Bacheler.

OBRA:

Vocal:

Mag, Nunc ‘to Mundy’s Short service’, GB-DRc, Lbl;
God standeth in the congregation, DRc, Lbl: both attrib. ‘Read’ or ‘Reed’

Instrumental:

Mixed consort, all inc.
Pavans:
Flatt pavan, Mr Doctor James Dean of Christchurchs paven, 9 untitled; 1 ed. in MB, xl (1977)

Galliards:
to the 6th pavan, to the 8th pavan, 1 untitled (2 versions, ed. in MB, xl, 1977)

Jigs:
Eglantine, Sweet bryer, 4 untitled

Allmaines:
1 after Holborne, ed. in MB, xl (1977);
1 untitled, US-CA
Battell;
Fancy;
La volta;
When Phoebus first

3 pieces, orpharion and other wire-strung instruments

Other insts:
1 pavan, a 5, D-Kl, T. Simpson, Opusculum neuwer Pavanen (1610)

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: Richard Reade (c.1555-1616) In english: Richard Reade (c.1555-1616) - Altres: No disponible



Malachias Siebenhaar (Creibitz, 6 de març de 1616 - Magdeburg, 6 de gener de 1685) va ser un compositor alemany.

Un refugiado durante su juventud, vagó con su familia desde su Bohemia natal a través de varias ciudades alemanas y finalmente llegaron a Zerbst, donde asistió al Gymnasium. Desde 1637 a 1641 estudió en la Universidad de Wittenberg, donde se hizo amigo íntimo del escritor Philipp von Zesen. Luego sirvió como Kantor en Tangermünde y desde 1644 a 1651 como Kantor y maestro en la escuela de la ciudad de Magdeburgo. Sirvió como ministro protestante en Nischwitz, Sajonia, en 1651 y en 1656 se convirtió en segundo ministro de St Ulrich, Magdeburgo. Las obras de Siebenhaar caen dentro de dos categorías distintas: su motetes para varias voces escritos en Magdeburgo y sus canciones solas con continuo sacras y seculares impresas en las colecciones de Zesen y Hildebrand. El primer grupo incluye conciertos vocales; dos de las colecciones contienen ritornellos para trompetas y timbales. Las canciones solas son modestas pero alcanzan un alto nivel artístico, no menor debido a los textos, porque la poesía de Zesen está entre lo mejor de Alemania en el siglo XVII, y Siebenhaar fue uno de los compositores a quienes él pidió ponerla en música; Siebenhaar puso música a poemas estróficos alemanes y holandeses silábica y simplemente.

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German composer of Bohemian origin. A refugee during his youth, he wandered with his family from his native Bohemia through several German cities and finally reached Zerbst, where he attended the Gymnasium. From 1637 to 1641 he studied at the University of Wittenberg, where he became a close friend of the writer Philipp von Zesen. He then served as Kantor in Tangermünde and from 1644 to 1651 as Kantor and teacher at the city school of Magdeburg. He served as Protestant minister in Nischwitz, Saxony, in 1651 and in 1656 became second minister of St Ulrich, Magdeburg. Siebenhaar's works fall into two distinct categories: his motets for several voices written in Magdeburg and his sacred and secular solo songs with continuo printed in the collections of Zesen and Hildebrand. The first group includes vocal concertos; two of the collections contain ritornellos for trumpets and timpani. The solo songs are unpretentious but reach a high artistic level, not least because of the texts, for Zesen's poetry is among the best in 17th-century Germany, and Siebenhaar was one of the composers he asked to set it to music; Siebenhaar set both German and Dutch strophic poems syllabically and simply.

OBRA:
published in Magdeburg unless otherwise stated

Himmlische … Liebesflammen, 8vv (1659)
Gängel Wagen der Jugend und Stab des Alters, 6vv (1661)
Der Kirchen Jesu Christi köstlicher Seelen Schmuck, 8vv, tpts, timp (1661)
Schuldige Pflicht und treumeinender Unterricht, 8vv (1662)
Himmlischlechtzendes Hirschen-Hertz, 8vv (1663)
Himmelsteigendes Danck-Opffer der Uhr-Alten Stadt Magdeburg, 10vv (1665)
Suaviloquium Dei Sionis mysticum, 9vv, tpts, timp (1667)
Song, 1v, bc, in Geistlicher Zeitvertreiber, ed. J. Hildebrand (Leipzig, 1656), lost
Andächtige Lehr-Gesänge von Kristus, ed. P. von Zesen (Nuremberg, 1675)
39 songs, 1v, bc, 1651, 1668, 1668, 1670




Michele Todini (Saluzzo, bap. 24 de maig de 1616 - Roma, 3 de maig de 1690) va ser un inventor d'instruments i compositor italià.


Italian inventor, maker and player of musical instruments. He moved to Rome around 1636, and from 1650 to 1652 he was known as guardiano degli strumentisti for the Congregazione di Santa Cecilia (a very prestigious post, which later was held by musicians such as Carlo Mannelli, Arcangelo Corelli and Giovanni Lulier). He was a trombone player and organist with the Musici del Campidoglio, for whom he was decano from at least 1676 to 1684. He also played various kinds of bowed instruments in numerous public performances, and claimed to have built and introduced the ‘contrabasso di viola’ to Rome about 1646. He died in Rome and not in France, as was erroneously reported by J.-B. de La Borde. He had no children, and thus, contrary to earlier hypotheses, could not have been the father of Pietro Todini, a harpsichord-maker mentioned in 1675. Todini is best known for the famous ‘Galleria armonica’, which he began to assemble in 1650 in his home near the Pantheon (via dell'Arco della Ciambella). According to his own description it was divided between two rooms. In the first room seven instruments (harpsichord, three types of spinet, organ, violin and lira ad arco) could be made to sound, alone or in various combinations, by means of a single controlling keyboard; this is depicted in Kircher's Phonurgia nova, although, according to Todini, in a completely fanciful manner. The second room housed wooden statues of Galatea and Polyphemus, the latter represented in the act of playing a ‘sordellina, or musetta’ whose mechanisms were activated by a harpsichord keyboard; the group was magnificently decorated with mythological imagery and in great part gilded. After 1690 the Galleria armonica was transferred to the palace of the Verospi marquises (now the Palazzo del Credito Italiano), in the via del Corso. Bonanni describes it in its new setting, where it continued to attract many visitors. However, Burney reported that by 1770 it had already fallen into neglect. The machine was broken up and sold in 1796, the Verospi family having died out; only the Galatea and Polyphemus group is known after that time; it remained in Rome in disuse until at least 1859. Having been acquired by the Viscount of Sartriges, the French ambassador to the Holy See, it was then moved to Paris. Since 1889 it has belonged to the Metropolitan Museum, New York.

Font: En català: Michele Todini (1616-1690) En castellano: Michele Todini (1616-1690) In english: Michele Todini (1616-1690) - Altres: Michele Todini (1616-1690)



Pietro Andrea Ziani (Venezi, desembre de 1616 - Napoli, 12 de febrer de 1684) va ser un organista i compositor italià.

Sobre la juventud de Ziani y sus estudios no se sabe nada. Su primera actividad musical que conocemos es como organista en la Iglesia de San Salvatore en Venecia, de la cual el 19 de marzo de 1639 se convirtió en diácono, y el 22 de diciembre de 1640 fue ordenado sacerdote. También en 1640 aparece su primera obra sobreviviente, Op. 2, que es una colección de 24 motetes. En el carnaval de 1654 hizo su debut como compositor de óperas con "La guerriera spartana” en el Teatro Sant’Apollinare. Desde el 15 de mayo de 1657 al 21 de junio de 1659 fue maestro de capilla de la Basílica de Santa María Maggiore en Bérgamo, sucediendo a Maurizio Cazzati. En 1660 comenzó su relación con los Habsburgo: en ese año dedicó su Op.6 al archiduque Fernando Carlos del Tirol, en 1662 fue a Innsbruck y en 1663 se convirtió en vice-kappellmeister en la corte de la Emperatriz viuda Eleonora de los Habsburgo en Viena. Entre diciembre de 1666 y enero de 1667 fue a Dresde a representar algunas de sus obras teatrales y sacras para la celebración del matrimonio entre el elector de sajonia Juan Jorge III y la princesa Ana Sofía de Dinamarca. El 20 de enero de 1669 fue nombrado primer organista, sucediendo a Francesco Cavalli, de la Basílica de San Marco en Venecia y a principios de 1676, con la muerte del Cavall, trató, sin éxito, de convertirse en director de la capilla, un puesto al que aspiraba mucho. Fue probablemente esta decepción lo que en 1677 lo llevó a Nápoles, ciudad en la que ya había estado cuatro años antes y donde puso en escena varias de sus obras.

La buena reputación que adquirió aquí fue causa de que se le ofreciera un puesto de profesor en el Conservatorio de Sant’Onofrio en Porta Capuana, el puesto de  organista honorario en la corte y en 1680 el puesto de maestro de la Capilla Real. Esta posición de prestigio le dio la oportunidad de revivir en el escenario sus antiguos dramas, que había representado ya en el pasado en Venecia y Viena. Ziani pertenece a los compositores venecianos, que llevaron la ópera más allá de los Alpes y, sobre todo a Viena. En sus primeras obras sigue por lo general la línea de Monteverde y Cavalli, mientras que más tarde adopta el estilo que caracteriza a Antonio Cesti. Los libretos que usa tienen elementos tanto serios como bufos y rara vez tienen temas heroicos o históricos, que comenzarán a ser más comunes hacia el final del siglo. Los oratorios de Ziani presentan características similares a sus óperas, pero en estos se nota mayor énfasis en la amplitud de los elementos musicales, tales como el uso del contrapunto. Sus sonatas de iglesia se acercan a las de Giovanni Legrenzi y Maximiliano Neri. Tienen tres o cuatro movimientos, comienzan con una fuga y terminan con una giga fugata. Gran importancia tiene la correspondencia que sostuvo Ziani con su amigo Marco Faustino, empresario veneciano, que documenta el complejo proceso de trabajo de preparación de una ópera en los años 1665-66. En estas cartas se hacía especial hincapié en la rapidez con que estas obras se hicieron, por ejemplo, Ziani afirmaba haber escrito la música de “Annibale in Capua” en sólo cinco días.

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Italian composer and organist, uncle of Marc’Antonio Ziani. He became a deacon on 19 March 1639 and took holy orders on 22 December 1640. At this time he was a member of the convent of canons regular at S Salvatore, Venice, where he was also organist. In his op.2 (1640) he is mentioned as holding both functions, but in his op.3 (1641) he is described only as organist at the church of S Salvatore and may thus have left the congregation of canons regular. In 1654 he appeared for the first time as an opera composer in Venice with La guerriera spartana. During most of the 1650s he was employed at St Mark’s, but in what capacity is unclear. From 15 May 1657 to 21 June 1659 he was maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore, Bergamo. In 1660 he dedicated his op.6 to Archduke Ferdinand Karl of the Tyrol and in the late autumn of 1662 went to Innsbruck; at the end of that year he went to Vienna as vice-Kapellmeister to the dowager Empress Eleonora. While he was in her service he directed performances of theatre and church music at Dresden in December 1666 and January 1667 to celebrate the marriage of the Elector Johann Georg III of Saxony to Princess Anna Sophia of Denmark. On 20 January 1669 he became first organist of St Mark’s, Venice. He succeeded Cavalli, who had been appointed maestro di cappella, and early in 1676, following Cavalli’s death, he applied unsuccessfully to follow him in that post too, which must have been his real ambition. In 1677 (as he had already done in 1673) he attended performances of his works in Naples. Illness forced him to overstay his leave of absence, and after lengthy negotiations he was relieved of his post in Venice.

He was given a teaching post at the Conservatorio S Onofrio, Naples, and the title of honorary organist at the court, where in 1680 he was appointed maestro di cappella. His position gave him the opportunity to present several of his old operas from Venice and Vienna on the Neapolitan stage. From his correspondence with Marco Faustini (in I-Vas) it appears that he was of a sickly constitution and was often forced into persistent and seemingly petty quarrels over payment. Ziani wrote his first three operas for the short-lived Teatro S Apollinare. His Fortune di Rodope e Damira, the only opera staged in Venice during Carnival 1657, was the last opera presented there. Marco Faustini was the impresario at this theatre; after 1657 he left to reopen the Teatro S Cassiano, which he in turn left in 1660 to manage the Teatro SS Giovanni e Paolo. Faustini engaged Ziani for all the theatres he managed. 12 letters that Ziani sent to Faustini from Vienna and Innsbruck, 1665–6, document the process involved in arranging a Venetian opera production. These reveal the remarkable speed at which some operas were composed; for example, Ziani claimed to have written Annibale in Capua in five days. The librettos Ziani set for the commercial theatres of Venice combine serious and comic elements; few adopt the heroic stance and historical subject matter that prevailed later in the century. The dramatic texts he set for Vienna were sometimes on a smaller scale than opera. Several of these were for court occasions, such as the birthday of Emperor Leopold I or of the dowager Empress Eleonora. In the course of Ziani’s career, Cavalli, the dominant figure in Venetian opera to the 1660s, was superseded by the younger generation of Antonio Sartorio, Carlo Pallavicino and Giovanni Legrenzi.

Along with Cesti, Ziani was important in the transition from Cavalli’s style to that of the younger generation, chiefly by responding to the mid-17th-century audience’s desire for easily accessible lyricism. In one of his letters, he claims that the public has lost interest in long soliloquies (characteristic of Cavalli), preferring canzonettas. The contrast between the 38 arias of Le fortune di Rodope e Damira and the 63 of his last opera, L’innocenza risorta (1683), illustrates the change that took place during his career. Formal variety and smooth transition from one declamatory style to another characterize Ziani’s operas. Up to the early 1670s he used a variety of aria forms, any of which could be strophic: bipartite arias, arias in ABB' form and arias with refrains, including arias in incipient da capo form. By the late 1670s, da capo form predominates. He often used ostinatos and walking basses for situations in which a character confronts implacable forces. Arioso passages, often in triple metre, are smoothly integrated into recitative. Ziani’s instrumental forces respond flexibly to the voice. Most of the arias, like recitative, are accompanied by continuo alone. Detachable ritornellos sometimes follow or, less often, precede continuo arias. In the accompanied arias, upper melodic instruments usually alternate with the voice. The little documentation that survives suggests that the forces for Ziani’s Venetian operas were small – 10 to 15 players, on strings, continuo and sometimes one or two trumpets. Ziani’s oratorios display characteristics similar to those of the operas, but there is a greater emphasis on weighty musical elements, especially contrapuntal writing. Fugal movements are also prominent in Ziani’s sonatas, most of which are in three or four movements. Most begin with such a movement, whose features include a regular beat and part-writing that often gives rise to harmonic asperities. The finales are generally in the manner of a gigue. The sonatas are similar in style to those of Venetian contemporaries of Ziani such as Legrenzi and Massimiliano Neri.

OBRA:

Vocal secular:

Operas (drammi per musica in three acts unless otherwise stated):
La guerriera spartana (prol, 3, G. Castoreo), Venice, S Apollinare, carn. 1654, music lost
Eupatra (prol, 3, G. Faustini), Venice, S Apollinare, carn. 1655, music lost
Le fortune di Rodope e Damira (prol, 3, A. Aureli), Venice, S Apollinaire, carn. 1657, I-IBborromeo, MOe, Nc, Vnm
L’incostanza trionfante, ovvero Il Theseo (prol, 3, F.M. Piccioli, after Plutarch), Venice, S Cassiano, carn. 1658, music lost
Antigona delusa da Alceste (prol, 3, Aureli), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1660, Vnm
Annibale in Capua (prol, 3, N. Beregan), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1661, D-ANsv, I-Nc (arias), Rvat, Vnm; sections ed. in Wolff 1937
Gli scherzi di Fortuna subordinato al Pirro (prol, 3, Aureli), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1662, Vnm
Le fatiche d’Ercole per Deianira (prol, 3, Aureli), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1662, Vnm; rev. A. Perruccio, Naples, S Bartolomeo, carn. 1679, Nc
L’amor guerriero (prol, 3, C. Ivanovich), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1663, Vnm; sections ed. in Wolff 1937
Oronisbe (componimento drammatico in musica, 3, A. Draghi), Vienna, 9 June 1663, music lost
La congiura del vizio contro la virtù (scherzo musicale, 1, D. Cupeda), Vienna, 15 Nov 1663
La ricreazione burlesca (1), Vienna, 1663/8, A-Wn
L’invidia conculcata dalla Virtù, Merito, Valore della S.C. Mta di Leopoldo imperatore (componimento drammatico, Draghi), Vienna, 1664, Wgm (1 dance), Wn, I-Vgc
Circe (Ivanovich), Vienna, 9 June 1665, Vnm
Cloridea (Draghi), Vienna, 1665, Vnm
Doriclea (prol, 3, G. Faustini), composed for Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1666, but only prol perf. as prol to Cesti: Orontea
L’onore trionfante (D. Federici), Vienna, Favorita, 9 June 1666, music lost
Elice (introduzione ad un regio balletto, Federici), Vienna, 18 Nov 1666, A-Wgm, Wn
Galatea (favola pastorale per musica, 3, Draghi), Vienna, 19 Feb 1667, Wgm (sections), Wn
Alciade (prol, 3, Faustini), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1667, music lost
Semiramide (M. Noris, after G.A. Moniglia), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, aut. 1670, D-AN, I-Vnm; sections ed. in Wolff 1937
Ippolita reina delle amazzoni [Act 3] (C.M. Maggi), Milan, Ducale, 1670, I-Nc; Act 1 and arias added to Act 2 by L. Busca, Act 2 by P.S. Agostini
Heraclio (Beregan), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1671; with prol (G. Cicinelli), Naples, S Bartolomeo, Dec 1673; Nc, Vnm, Vqs (arias)
Attila (Noris), Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo, carn. 1672, IBborromeo, Vnm, Vqs (arias)
Chi tal nasce tal vive, ovvero L’Alessandro Bala (A. Perruccio), Naples, S Bartolomeo, Dec 1678, MC, Nc, arias in Gl and Nc
Candaule (A. Morselli), Venice, S Cassiano, week before 9 Dec 1679; as Candaule re di Lidia, Naples, Real Palazzo, ded. 21 Dec 1679; D-AN, I-Vnm, arias in B-Bc, GB-Ob, I-MOe, Tn and Vqs; sections ed. in Wolff 1937
Enea in Cartagine (M.A. Catania), Palermo, 1680, music lost
L’innocenza risorta, ovvero Etio (Morselli), Venice, S Cassiano, week before 6 Feb 1683; as Il talamo preservato dalla fedeltà di Eudossa, Reggio Emilia, 1–11 May 1683, MOe (facs. in IOB, xii, 1978)

Prol (Cicinelli) to G.A. Boretti:
Marcello in Siracusa, Naples, 1673, music lost; rev. of A. Sartorio: Orfeo, Naples, 1682, Nc

Doubtful:
Cleandra (N. Minato), Bologna, 1678 [adaptation of Draghi: Chilonida]

Other:
Fiori musicali raccolti … nel giardino de madrigali, 2–4vv (Venice, 1640)
Il primo libro di canzonette, 1v, op.3 (Venice, 1641)
[16] Canzonette, 1v, op.8 (Venice, 1670)
2 It. arias, 1v, bc, 1656
4 It. cants., 2 duets, madrigals, 2–3vv: GB-Lbl, I-Bc, Nc, Nf

Vocal religiosa:

Oratorios:
Santa Caterina, Vienna, 1662, A-Wn
Oratorio di S Pietro piangente (P. Guadagni), Vienna, 1664, Wn
Oratorio dell’incredulità di S Tomaso (G.A. Scacchi), Vienna, 1665, music lost
Gli affetti pietosi per il sepolcro di Cristo (D. Federici), Vienna, 1666, music lost
Lagrime della Pietà nel sepolcro di Cristo (Federici), Vienna, 1667, music lost
L’Assalone punito (Padre Lepori), Vienna, 1667, Wn, I-Vgc
Il cuore umano all’incanto, Naples, 1681, Nf
Le stimate di S Francesco, Nf

Other:
Partitura delli [24] motetti, libro primo, 1v, op.2 (Venice, 1640)
[13] Sacrae laudes complectentes tertiam, missam psalmosque dominicales, 5vv, 2 insts, op.6 (Venice, 1660)
5 Lat. motets, 1649, 1656, 1668
3 masses, 8vv, vns, one dated 1672;
2 Mag settings, 6vv, insts;
Stabat mater;
Lamentations, 1–3vv, insts;
4 pss;
6 motets, 3, 5, 6, 8vv, vns;
hymns, 1–4vv, 2 vn, 1667;
It. sacred work, 1v, vns;
further sacred works: Kl, I–Nf, Vnm, Vsm, Mauritiusarchiv, Krems

Instrumental:

[20] Sonate, a 3–6, op.7 (Freiburg, c1667), 12 repr. 1678 also as op.7
Ziani’s Aires or Sonatas in 3 Parts, 2 vn, bc, op.1 (London, 1703)
6 sonates, 2 vn, bc (org) (Amsterdam, c1710)
6 sonatas, str; 2 sonatas, 2 vn, 4 va, bc (org), 1670;
sonata, tpt, str, org: GB–Och, Mauritiusarchiv, Krems




Gregorio Zucchini (Brescia?, c.1540 - c.1616) va ser un compositor italià.

He was a Benedictine monk; the dedication of his Promptuarium harmonicum (1616) establishes that he took holy orders in the monastery of S Giorgio Maggiore at Venice at the earliest possible age, probably when he was about 15. He may have been the ‘D.nus Gregorius de Brixia’ who professed on 29 June 1556, but it is possible, though less likely, that instead a similar entry (with the name ‘Georgius’) in the monastery’s records for 15 August 1575 refers to him. In 1600 he sought the permission of Pope Clement VIII to spend some time in the Roman monastery of S Paolo fuori le Mura, where he composed the masses and motets of his Harmonia sacra. He seems also to have stayed for a while at Praglia Abbey, near Padua. Zucchini’s surviving music is exclusively sacred, and much of it is in the traditional style of functional church music for four to seven voices. His first publication, however, contains rich polychoral works for three and four choirs which indicate that he was one of the most important composers who emulated Giovanni Gabrieli. The four-choir mass, the 16-voice Laudate Dominum and the 20-voice motet Sanctificati sunt from Harmonia sacra represent his polychoral technique at its best. He made greater use than many of Gabrieli’s followers of imitative part-writing, often beginning a section with an imitative point and broadening the final cadence with polyphonic elaboration. In the four-choir mass, flowing polyphony for all 16 voices together alternates with short concerted phrases in which the choirs are clearly differentiated in antiphonal exchanges.

Occasionally, as in the second Kyrie, the choirs join in a solid block of homophonic sound. Zucchini’s skilful manipulation of contrasting textures is matched by a strong sense of formal clarity. The works for two choirs are harmonically richer than those for larger forces, and here and in his later, still smaller-scale works Zucchini sometimes interpreted the text closely in his music. In the book of four- and five-part masses and motets of 1609 he abandoned polychoral writing (to which he apparently never returned) in favour of imitative polyphony. The masses contain much note-against-note writing, and some of the longer movements include sections in falsobordone. The seven-voice mass of the 1610 book contains no such sections and is an altogether more expansive work. In 1615 and 1616 Zucchini published music for the canonical hours, and he included in the 1616 book a number of instrumental canzonas for church use. During his lifetime Zucchini remained almost unknown in Italy, but his Harmonia sacra won him renown north of the Alps. His masses were performed at the court of Archduke Ferdinand at Graz, and a manuscript collection compiled for the Hofkapelle there in 1610 includes his mass for four choirs from Harmonia sacra; the Pelplin Tablature contains three eight-voice motets from the same volume. It is interesting that, except for a few eight-voice motets, it was the modest four-voice motets and masses that were most often included in Netherlandish and German anthologies; over 30 of his works were printed in collections dating from 1604 to 1628.

OBRA:
all printed works published in Venice

Harmonia sacra in qua motecta, missae autem continentur, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20vv (1602);
3 motets, 8vv, copied in PL-PE (org tablature), facs. in AMP, ii (1965), incipit in AMP, i (1963)
Motectorum et missarum … liber primus, 4, 5vv (1609)
Motectorum et missarum … liber secundus, 6, 7vv (1610)
Missa … cum nonnullis psalmis integris, divisis, falsibordonibus, Magnificat, et litaniis beatae virginis, 4vv (1615)
Promptuarium harmonicum in quo haec nempe missa pro vivis, missa pro defunctis, vespertini psalmi … Magnificat cum omnitonis falsis bordonis, motecta, litaniae Beatae Mariae Virginis, litaniae sanctorum et cantiones pro instrumentis, 4vv (1616)

9 masses, 4vv;
23 motets, 4, 6–8vv;
2 sacred madrigals, 5vv: 1604, 1613, 1617, 1618, 1621, 1622, 1623, 1625a, 1626, 1626, 1627, 1628, L. Erhard, Harmonisches Chor- und Figural Gesang-Buch (Frankfurt, 1659) [probably incl. many repr. from prints listed above]
Missa pro defunctis, 4vv;
3 motets, 4vv; falsobordoni: D-As, LEm, Mbs
Mass, 8vv, motets, Rtt (org tablature; according to Schmidl), PL-WRu (according to EitnerQ)
9 motets, lost, formerly Bibliotheca Rudolfina, Liegnitz [Legnica]

Font: En català: No disponible En castellano: No disponible In english: Gregorio Zucchini (c1540-c.1616) - Altres: Gregorio Zucchini (c1540-c.1616)